Effects of increasing level of supplemental barley on forage intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in steers fed medium-quality grass hay.
ABSTRACT Objectives of this research were to evaluate effects of increasing level of barley supplementation on forage intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in beef steers fed medium-quality forage. Four crossbred ruminally cannulated steers (average initial BW = 200 +/- 10 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Chopped (5 cm) grass hay (10% CP) was offered ad libitum with one of four supplements. Supplements included 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4 kg of barley (DM basis) and were fed in two equal portions at 0700 and 1600. Supplements were fed at levels to provide for equal intake of supplemental protein with the addition of soybean meal. Forage intake (kg and g/kg BW) decreased linearly (P < 0.01), and total intake increased linearly (P < 0.03) with increasing level of barley supplementation. Digestible OM intake (g/kg BW) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing level of barley supplementation; however, the majority of this response was observed with 0.8 kg of barley supplementation. Treatments had only minor effects on ruminal pH, with decreases occurring at 15 h after feeding in steers receiving 2.4 kg of barley supplementation. Total-tract digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and CP were increased (P < 0.04) with barley supplementation; however, ADF digestibility was decreased by 1.6 and 2.4 kg of barley supplementation compared with controls. Ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly (P < 0.01) at 1 through 15 h after feeding. Total ruminal VFA concentrations were not altered by dietary treatments. Ruminal proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased (P < 0.10) in response to supplementation. Rate, lag, and extent (72 h) of in situ forage degradability were unaffected by treatment. Generally, these data are interpreted to indicate that increasing levels of barley supplementation decrease forage intake, increase DM, OM, and NDF digestibility, and indicate alteration of the ruminal environment and fermentation patterns.
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ABSTRACT: Thirty-six male Hu lambs consuming a rice straw-based diet were used in a 60-day trial to study the associative effects of cornstarch supplementation on intake, digestion, ruminal microbial population and growth performance. All animals were fed rice straw ad libitum together with 160 g/day of rapeseed meal and supplemented with cornstarch at levels of 0 (control), 60, 120 or 180 g/day, respectively. Increment of supplementary cornstarch showed little influence on rice straw intake. Optimal growth performance and highest apparent digestibility of organic matter was achieved in the 120 g/day cornstarch group (P < 0.05), while the digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein were significantly decreased by 180 g/day cornstarch (P < 0.05). Similar results were observed for carboxymethyl cellulose activity and relative populations of cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogene). Blood urea nitrogen was reduced by supplementary cornstarch, indicating enhanced protein utilization efficiency. Carcass traits were all significantly improved by supplementary cornstarch. These results suggested that proper amounts of starch supplementation (within 0.5% BW) has little adverse effect on forage utilization, but could effectively improve growth performance. High levels of cornstarch, however, would decrease cellulase activity and populations of cellulolytic bacteria, and hence the digestibility of forage.Animal Science Journal 04/2010; 81(2):172-9. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, behaviour, intake pattern and blood metabolites, were recorded for steers offered total mixed rations (TMR) based on grass silage and concentrates, and constituted either at ensiling (E-TMR) or feed- out (F-TMR). Fourteen continental crossbred steers (mean starting weight 505 (s.d. 41.5) kg) were assigned to each of the following eight treatments: grass silage offered ad libitum (SO), E-TMR diets constituted in approximate dry matter (DM) ratios of grass:concentrates of 75:25 (EL), 50:50 (EM) and 25:75 (EH), F-TMR diets consti- tuted in approximate DM ratios of grass silage:concentrates of 75:25 (FL), 50:50 (FM) and 25:75 (FH), and finally concentrates ad libitum (AL). Total DM intake increased linearly (P < 0.001) and the time spent eating and ruminating decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrate proportion. Animals on the F-TMR diets had higher total DM intakes (P < 0.05) and plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and urea (P < 0.001) concentrations than animals on the corresponding E-TMR diets. No effect of method of feed preparation on intake pattern or behaviour was recorded. In Experiment 2, four ruminally cannulated Holstein-Friesian steers of mean initial live weight 630 (s.d. 23.2) kg were used to evaluate rumen characteristics for four of the above diets (FL, EL, FH and EH) in a 4 × 4 latin square design. Higher concentrate diets resulted in lower rumen pH (P < 0.05), higher lactic acid (P < 0.001) and ammonia (P < 0.05) concentrations and lower acetate:propionate (P < 0.05). F-TMR was associated with a higher (P < 0.05) rumen volatile fatty acid concentration but no difference in other rumen fermentation characteristics compared to E-TMR. Concentrate proportion and
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ABSTRACT: A 2×2 factorial design with 32 Hereford bulls with an initial live weight (LW) of 307kg was used to study the effects of (1) concentrate type and (2) concentrate feeding intensity on animal performance and health in cold conditions. The experiment included periods P1 (140d) and P2 (on average 87d) and consisted of two types of concentrate during P1–P2 (farm-made concentrate mixture, F; commercial compound, C) and two intensities of concentrate feeding pre slaughter during P2 (restricted, R; adlibitum, A). Concentrate was offered on average 2.3kg dry matter (DM)/d during P1. During P2, concentrate was offered 3.0kg DM/d on diet R and ad libitum on diet A. Grass silage (GS) was offered ad libitum.The proportion of concentrate in the daily DM intake was 0.29, 0.44, 0.29 and 0.50 during the entire experiment for diets FR, FA, CR and CA, respectively. On average, the intake of GS was lower on diet A than on diet R (PLivestock Science - LIVEST SCI. 01/2010; 127(2):227-237.