Influence of supplemental cracked high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds on site and extent of digestion in beef cattle.
ABSTRACT Our objectives were to evaluate ruminal fermentation patterns, apparent ruminal biohydrogenation, and site and extent of nutrient disappearance in cattle fed supplemental cracked safflower seeds differing in 18 C fatty acid profile. Nine Angus x Gelbvieh heifers (641 +/- 9.6 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Cattle were fed (OM basis) 9.1 kg of bromegrass hay and either 1) 1.8 kg of corn and 0.20 kg of soybean meal (Control); 2) 0.13 kg of soybean meal and 1.5 kg of cracked high-linoleate (67.2% 18:2) safflower seeds (Linoleate); or 3) 1.5 kg of cracked high-oleate (72.7% 18:1) safflower seeds (Oleate). Safflower seed supplements were formulated to provide similar quantities of N and TDN and 5% dietary fat. Single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts (Control vs. Linoleate and Oleate; Linoleate vs. Oleate) were used to evaluate treatment effects. True ruminal OM and ruminal NDF disappearances (percentage of intake) were greater (P < or =0.02) for Control than Linoleate and Oleate. True ruminal N degradability (% of intake) was not different (P = 0.38) among treatments. Apparent ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary 18:2 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P < 0.001) for Linoleate, whereas biohydrogenation of dietary 18:1 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P = 0.02) for Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:0 was least (P < 0.001) for Control but did not differ (P = 0.92) between Oleate and Linoleate. Total flow of unsaturated fatty acid to the duodenum was greatest (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds, and was greater with Linoleate (P < 0.001) than with Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:1 and 18:2 increased (P < 0.001) in Oleate and Linoleate, respectively. Duodenal flow of 18:1trans-11 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds and in Linoleate than in Oleate. Postruminal disappearance of saturated fatty acids was greatest (P < 0.001) for Control; however, postruminal disappearance of total unsaturated fatty acids was greater (P = 0.002) for Linoleate vs. Oleate. Supplemental high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds to cattle fed forage-based diets may negatively affect ruminal OM and fiber disappearance but not N disappearance. Provision of supplemental fat in the form of safflower seeds that are high in linoleic acid increased intestinal supply and postruminal disappearance of unsaturated fatty acids, indicating that the fatty acids apparently available for metabolism are affected by dietary fat source.
- Reproduction Nutrition Development 02/1990; Suppl 2:188s. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eight Angus x Gelbvieh heifers (445 +/- 74.5 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square double double-crossover designed experiment to assess the effect of restricted forage intake on site and extent of digestion and flow of essential AA amino acids to the small intestine. Heifers were fed chopped (2.54 cm) bromegrass hay (9.2% CP, 64% NDF on an OM basis) at one of four percentages of maintenance (30, 60, 90, and 120%). Experimental periods were 21 d in length, with 17 d of adaptation followed by 4 d of intensive sample collection, after which maintenance requirements and subsequent level of intake were adjusted for BW change. True ruminal OM, NDF, and N digestion (g/d) decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with decreasing forage intake. When expressed as a percentage of OM intake, true ruminal OM and N digestibility were not affected (P = 0.23 to 0.87), whereas ruminal NDF digestibility tended to increase (P = 0.09) as forage intake decreased. Total and microbial essential amino acid flow to the duodenum decreased linearly (P = 0.001) from 496.1 to 132.1 g/d and 329.1 to 96.0 g/d, as intake decreased from 120 to 30% of maintenance intake, respectively. Although the profile of individual essential amino acids in duodenal digesta (P = 0.001 to 0.07) and isolated ruminal microbes differed (P = 0.001 to 0.09) across treatment, the greatest difference noted for total and microbial essential amino acid profile was only 0.3 percentage units. Because total and microbial flow of essential amino acids to the small intestine decreased as OM intake decreased, but true ruminal degradability of individual essential amino acids (P = 0.17 to 0.99) and digesta essential amino acid profile were comparable across treatments, total essential amino acid supply to the small intestine was predicted using OM intake as the independent variable. The resulting simple linear regression equation was: total essential amino acid flow = (0.055 x OM intake) + 1.546 (r2 = 0.91). The model developed in this experiment accounted for more of the variation in the data set than the current beef cattle NRC model, which under-predicted total flow of essential amino acids to the duodenum. The prediction equation developed herein can be used to estimate the supply of essential amino acids reaching the small intestine when formulating supplements to compensate for potential amino acid deficiencies resulting from restricted forage intake.Journal of Animal Science 04/2004; 82(4):1146-56. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Different methods of optimizing feed conversion into nutrients in the rumen are now available to scientists. But the rumen must be considered as an integrated system and this makes it difficult to rationalize manipulation. The observed result of any treatment is a combination of several interactive reactions. Any change to one component of the system has several uncontrolled effects on other components. The positive effects aimed for are sometimes associated with undesirable effects. Numerous chemical additives have been studied during the last two decades among which ionophore antibiotics represent the most important group. The interest of non-ionophore antibiotics, methane inhibitors, and compounds inhibiting proteases or deaminases, has also been considered during the last years. The observed effects of these chemical additives on animals, and their possible mode of action on rumen microbes and on animal metabolism, are discussed. However, the risks of the presence of residues in meat and milk are questioned by consumers. Microbial activity in the rumen can be altered by feeding animals with large amounts of certain food constituents (fats, starch) or minerals (buffer substances). The responses in the rumen to these dietary conditions are analyzed in terms of the digestive effects on plant cell wall degradation and microbial protein synthesis. Modification of the rumen microbial population is now considered as a possible approach to rumen manipulation by scientists. The effects on digestion of the elimination of ciliate protozoa (defaunation) are presented. The feasibility of these objectives, from a practical standpoint, is discussed. Finally, there is an overview of the effects of the addition of live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisciae), or fungi (Aspergillus orizae), used as probiotics. A possible mode of action of probiotics on the rumen ecosystem is suggested.Archives of Animal Nutrition 02/1994; 46(2):133-53. · 0.90 Impact Factor