Influence of supplemental cracked high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds on site and extent of digestion in beef cattle.
ABSTRACT Our objectives were to evaluate ruminal fermentation patterns, apparent ruminal biohydrogenation, and site and extent of nutrient disappearance in cattle fed supplemental cracked safflower seeds differing in 18 C fatty acid profile. Nine Angus x Gelbvieh heifers (641 +/- 9.6 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Cattle were fed (OM basis) 9.1 kg of bromegrass hay and either 1) 1.8 kg of corn and 0.20 kg of soybean meal (Control); 2) 0.13 kg of soybean meal and 1.5 kg of cracked high-linoleate (67.2% 18:2) safflower seeds (Linoleate); or 3) 1.5 kg of cracked high-oleate (72.7% 18:1) safflower seeds (Oleate). Safflower seed supplements were formulated to provide similar quantities of N and TDN and 5% dietary fat. Single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts (Control vs. Linoleate and Oleate; Linoleate vs. Oleate) were used to evaluate treatment effects. True ruminal OM and ruminal NDF disappearances (percentage of intake) were greater (P < or =0.02) for Control than Linoleate and Oleate. True ruminal N degradability (% of intake) was not different (P = 0.38) among treatments. Apparent ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary 18:2 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P < 0.001) for Linoleate, whereas biohydrogenation of dietary 18:1 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P = 0.02) for Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:0 was least (P < 0.001) for Control but did not differ (P = 0.92) between Oleate and Linoleate. Total flow of unsaturated fatty acid to the duodenum was greatest (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds, and was greater with Linoleate (P < 0.001) than with Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:1 and 18:2 increased (P < 0.001) in Oleate and Linoleate, respectively. Duodenal flow of 18:1trans-11 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds and in Linoleate than in Oleate. Postruminal disappearance of saturated fatty acids was greatest (P < 0.001) for Control; however, postruminal disappearance of total unsaturated fatty acids was greater (P = 0.002) for Linoleate vs. Oleate. Supplemental high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds to cattle fed forage-based diets may negatively affect ruminal OM and fiber disappearance but not N disappearance. Provision of supplemental fat in the form of safflower seeds that are high in linoleic acid increased intestinal supply and postruminal disappearance of unsaturated fatty acids, indicating that the fatty acids apparently available for metabolism are affected by dietary fat source.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of BCS at parturition and postpartum lipid supplementation on blood metabolite and hormone concentrations, 3-yr-old Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows, which were nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479.3 +/- 36.3 kg of BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (579.6 +/- 53.1 kg of BW) at parturition, were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr). Beginning at 3 d postpartum, cows within each BCS were assigned randomly to be fed hay and a low-fat control supplement or lipid supplements with either cracked high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds until d 61 of lactation. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and the safflower seed supplements were formulated to achieve 5% DMI as fat. On d 31 and 61 of lactation, blood samples were collected preprandially and then hourly postprandially (at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h). Serum insulin (P = 0.27) and glucose (P = 0.64) were not affected by BCS at parturition. The mean concentrations of plasma NEFA (P = 0.08) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.08) tended to be greater, and serum IGF-I was greater (P < 0.001) in BCS 6 than BCS 4 cows. Conversely, serum GH was greater (P = 0.003) for BCS 4 cows, indicating that regulation of IGF by GH may have been uncoupled in BCS 4 cows. The postpartum diet did not affect NEFA (P = 0.94), glucose (P = 0.15), IGF-I (P = 0.33), or GH (P = 0.62) concentrations. Oleate-supplemented cows had greater (P = 0.03) serum insulin concentrations, whereas control cows had greater (P = 0.01) plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.05) and glucose (P < 0.001) were greater, and beta-hydroxybutyrate tended (P = 0.07), to be greater at d 3, whereas serum IGF-I was greater (P = 0.003) at d 6 of lactation. Similar concentrations of NEFA, glucose, GH, and IGF-I indicate that the nutritional status of beef cows during early lactation was not influenced by lipid supplementation. However, perturbations of the somatotropic axis in BCS 4 cows indicate that the influence of energy balance and BCS of the cow at parturition on postpartum performance should be considered when making managerial decisions.Journal of Animal Science 04/2006; 84(4):1038-47. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lambs (n = 48) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate effects of inclusion of oil containing PUFA in high-concentrate diets (with or without) and duration of oil supplementation (pre- vs. postweaning) on CLA concentration of muscle and adipose tissue. Lambs were fed preweaning creep diets (with or without oil) corresponding to the dietary lactation treatment diet (with or without oil) of the dam. Dams blocked by lambing date and rearing type were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 lactation dietary treatments with or without oil supplementation. Creep diets contained approximately 70% concentrate and 30% roughage and were provided to lambs for ad libitum intake. At weaning (58.7 +/- 2.5 d of age), lambs (n = 48) were randomly assigned within preweaning treatment groups to 1 of 2 postweaning dietary treatments (with or without oil) and 16 pens in a randomized block design, blocked by sex and BW. Postweaning diets were formulated to contain approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage and were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. Soybean and linseed oil (2:1, respectively) replaced ground corn and provided 3% additional fat in pre- and postweaning diets. Lambs were slaughtered at 60.3 +/- 4.2 kg of BW. A subcutaneous fat (SQ) sample was obtained within 1 h postmortem and a LM sample at the 12th rib was obtained 24 h postmortem, and both were analyzed for fatty acid profile. Feedlot performance and carcass measurements were not affected (P >or= 0.26) by oil supplementation. Total CLA content of LM and SQ was not affected (P >or= 0.08) by oil supplementation pre- or postweaning, but trans-10, cis-12 CLA was greater (P = 0.02) in SQ from lambs supplemented with oil postweaning. Total PUFA content in LM was greater (P = 0.02) in lambs supplemented with oil pre- or postweaning as a result of increased concentrations of 18:2cis-9, cis-12 and longer chain PUFA. Conversely, pre- and postweaning oil supplementation resulted in less (P = 0.04) MUFA content in LM. Only postweaning oil supplementation increased (P = 0.001) SQ PUFA content. Feeding oils containing PUFA to lambs pre- and postweaning did not increase CLA content of muscle, whereas postweaning oil supplementation minimally increased CLA concentration of SQ fat. Inclusion of soybean and linseed oil in pre- and postweaning diets increased total PUFA content of SQ fat and muscle tissue without adversely affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics.Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(12):4082-91. · 2.09 Impact Factor