Influence of supplemental cracked high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds on site and extent of digestion in beef cattle.
ABSTRACT Our objectives were to evaluate ruminal fermentation patterns, apparent ruminal biohydrogenation, and site and extent of nutrient disappearance in cattle fed supplemental cracked safflower seeds differing in 18 C fatty acid profile. Nine Angus x Gelbvieh heifers (641 +/- 9.6 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Cattle were fed (OM basis) 9.1 kg of bromegrass hay and either 1) 1.8 kg of corn and 0.20 kg of soybean meal (Control); 2) 0.13 kg of soybean meal and 1.5 kg of cracked high-linoleate (67.2% 18:2) safflower seeds (Linoleate); or 3) 1.5 kg of cracked high-oleate (72.7% 18:1) safflower seeds (Oleate). Safflower seed supplements were formulated to provide similar quantities of N and TDN and 5% dietary fat. Single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts (Control vs. Linoleate and Oleate; Linoleate vs. Oleate) were used to evaluate treatment effects. True ruminal OM and ruminal NDF disappearances (percentage of intake) were greater (P < or =0.02) for Control than Linoleate and Oleate. True ruminal N degradability (% of intake) was not different (P = 0.38) among treatments. Apparent ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary 18:2 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P < 0.001) for Linoleate, whereas biohydrogenation of dietary 18:1 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P = 0.02) for Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:0 was least (P < 0.001) for Control but did not differ (P = 0.92) between Oleate and Linoleate. Total flow of unsaturated fatty acid to the duodenum was greatest (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds, and was greater with Linoleate (P < 0.001) than with Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:1 and 18:2 increased (P < 0.001) in Oleate and Linoleate, respectively. Duodenal flow of 18:1trans-11 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds and in Linoleate than in Oleate. Postruminal disappearance of saturated fatty acids was greatest (P < 0.001) for Control; however, postruminal disappearance of total unsaturated fatty acids was greater (P = 0.002) for Linoleate vs. Oleate. Supplemental high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds to cattle fed forage-based diets may negatively affect ruminal OM and fiber disappearance but not N disappearance. Provision of supplemental fat in the form of safflower seeds that are high in linoleic acid increased intestinal supply and postruminal disappearance of unsaturated fatty acids, indicating that the fatty acids apparently available for metabolism are affected by dietary fat source.
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ABSTRACT: Supplementing ruminant animal diets with fat has been investigated as a means to influence a variety of physiological processes or to alter fatty acid composition of food products derived from ruminant animals. Several digestion experiments have been conducted with beef cattle and sheep to elucidate the effects of supplemental fat on utilization of other dietary components. Negative associative effects are not likely to be observed in ruminants consuming forage-based diets with supplemental fat at < or = 2% of DMI. Inclusion of supplemental fat at < or = 3% of DM is recommended to obtain the most benefit from the energy contained within the fat and other dietary components in high-forage diets. For ruminants fed high-concentrate diets, supplementing fat at 6% of diet DM is expected to have minimal impacts on utilization of other dietary components. Although there is greater potential to supply the ruminant animal with unsaturated fatty acids from dietary origin if fat is added to high-concentrate diets, incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids results in an increase in duodenal flow of 18:1 trans fatty acids regardless of basal diet consumed by the animal. The biohydrogenation intermediate 18:1 trans-11 (trans-vaccenic acid) is the likely precursor to cis-9, trans-11 CLA because the magnitude of increase in CLA content in tissues or milk of ruminants fed fat is much greater than the increase in CLA presented to the small intestine of ruminants fed fat supplements. Duodenal flow of trans-vaccenic acid is also substantially greater than CLA. Increasing unsaturated fatty acids status of ruminants imparts physiological responses that are separate than the energy value of supplemental fat. Manipulating maternal diet to improve unsaturated fatty acid status of the neonate has practical benefits for animals experiencing stress due to exposure to cold environments or conditions which mount an immune response. Supplementing fat to provide an additional 16 to 18 g/d of 18:2n-6 to the small intestine of beef cows for the first 60 to 90 d of lactation will have negative impacts on reproduction and may impair immune function of the suckling calf. Consequences of the suckling animal increasing its intake of unsaturated fatty acids because of manipulation of maternal diet warrants further investigation.Journal of Animal Science 05/2008; 86(14 Suppl):E188-204. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lambs (n = 48) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate effects of inclusion of oil containing PUFA in high-concentrate diets (with or without) and duration of oil supplementation (pre- vs. postweaning) on CLA concentration of muscle and adipose tissue. Lambs were fed preweaning creep diets (with or without oil) corresponding to the dietary lactation treatment diet (with or without oil) of the dam. Dams blocked by lambing date and rearing type were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 lactation dietary treatments with or without oil supplementation. Creep diets contained approximately 70% concentrate and 30% roughage and were provided to lambs for ad libitum intake. At weaning (58.7 +/- 2.5 d of age), lambs (n = 48) were randomly assigned within preweaning treatment groups to 1 of 2 postweaning dietary treatments (with or without oil) and 16 pens in a randomized block design, blocked by sex and BW. Postweaning diets were formulated to contain approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage and were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. Soybean and linseed oil (2:1, respectively) replaced ground corn and provided 3% additional fat in pre- and postweaning diets. Lambs were slaughtered at 60.3 +/- 4.2 kg of BW. A subcutaneous fat (SQ) sample was obtained within 1 h postmortem and a LM sample at the 12th rib was obtained 24 h postmortem, and both were analyzed for fatty acid profile. Feedlot performance and carcass measurements were not affected (P >or= 0.26) by oil supplementation. Total CLA content of LM and SQ was not affected (P >or= 0.08) by oil supplementation pre- or postweaning, but trans-10, cis-12 CLA was greater (P = 0.02) in SQ from lambs supplemented with oil postweaning. Total PUFA content in LM was greater (P = 0.02) in lambs supplemented with oil pre- or postweaning as a result of increased concentrations of 18:2cis-9, cis-12 and longer chain PUFA. Conversely, pre- and postweaning oil supplementation resulted in less (P = 0.04) MUFA content in LM. Only postweaning oil supplementation increased (P = 0.001) SQ PUFA content. Feeding oils containing PUFA to lambs pre- and postweaning did not increase CLA content of muscle, whereas postweaning oil supplementation minimally increased CLA concentration of SQ fat. Inclusion of soybean and linseed oil in pre- and postweaning diets increased total PUFA content of SQ fat and muscle tissue without adversely affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics.Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(12):4082-91. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A database built from 95 experiments with 303 treatments was used to quantify the ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of fatty acids (FA), efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS), duodenal flow and intestinal absorption of total FA and of FA with 12 to 18 C units, in response to variations in dietary FA content, source or technological treatment of fat supplement. Flows of FA were expressed relative to dry matter intake (DMI) to compile data from bovine and ovine species. BH tended to increase curvilinearly with FA intake, whereas dietary FA did not affect EMPS. A linear relationship between FA intake and duodenal flow of total FA was obtained, with a coefficient of 0.75 ± 0.06 g duodenal FA/kg DMI for each g FA intake/kg DMI. Between experiments, positive balances of total FA (intake - duodenum) were related to low EMPS. Relationships between duodenal flows of FA with 12 to 18 C units and their respective intakes were linear, with a coefficient that increased with the number of C units. Duodenal flow of bacterial FA was linearly related to FA intake (coefficient 0.33 ± 0.13), whereas contribution of bacterial lipid to duodenal flow decreased as FA intake increased. For each FA with 12 to 16 C units, prediction of FA absorption from its respective duodenal flow was linear. For total FA and FA with 18 C units, apparent absorption levelled off at high duodenal flows. All these relationships were discussed according to current knowledge on microbial metabolism in the rumen and on the intestinal digestibility of FA in the intestine.animal 05/2008; 2(5):677-90. · 1.65 Impact Factor