Our objectives were to evaluate ruminal fermentation patterns, apparent ruminal biohydrogenation, and site and extent of nutrient disappearance in cattle fed supplemental cracked safflower seeds differing in 18 C fatty acid profile. Nine Angus x Gelbvieh heifers (641 +/- 9.6 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Cattle were fed (OM basis) 9.1 kg of bromegrass hay and either 1) 1.8 kg of corn and 0.20 kg of soybean meal (Control); 2) 0.13 kg of soybean meal and 1.5 kg of cracked high-linoleate (67.2% 18:2) safflower seeds (Linoleate); or 3) 1.5 kg of cracked high-oleate (72.7% 18:1) safflower seeds (Oleate). Safflower seed supplements were formulated to provide similar quantities of N and TDN and 5% dietary fat. Single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts (Control vs. Linoleate and Oleate; Linoleate vs. Oleate) were used to evaluate treatment effects. True ruminal OM and ruminal NDF disappearances (percentage of intake) were greater (P < or =0.02) for Control than Linoleate and Oleate. True ruminal N degradability (% of intake) was not different (P = 0.38) among treatments. Apparent ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary 18:2 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P < 0.001) for Linoleate, whereas biohydrogenation of dietary 18:1 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P = 0.02) for Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:0 was least (P < 0.001) for Control but did not differ (P = 0.92) between Oleate and Linoleate. Total flow of unsaturated fatty acid to the duodenum was greatest (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds, and was greater with Linoleate (P < 0.001) than with Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:1 and 18:2 increased (P < 0.001) in Oleate and Linoleate, respectively. Duodenal flow of 18:1trans-11 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds and in Linoleate than in Oleate. Postruminal disappearance of saturated fatty acids was greatest (P < 0.001) for Control; however, postruminal disappearance of total unsaturated fatty acids was greater (P = 0.002) for Linoleate vs. Oleate. Supplemental high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds to cattle fed forage-based diets may negatively affect ruminal OM and fiber disappearance but not N disappearance. Provision of supplemental fat in the form of safflower seeds that are high in linoleic acid increased intestinal supply and postruminal disappearance of unsaturated fatty acids, indicating that the fatty acids apparently available for metabolism are affected by dietary fat source.
"the human diet and an optimal ratio of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids              . Many byproduct from the vegetable oil industry, such as safflower byproducts, are rich in unsaturated fatty acids        . The lack of the development of the crop for safflower oil production in the Mediterranean environments is mainly due to the length of cropping cycle along with low seed yield potential and some protectionist agricultural policy in favor of different oil crops. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two group of kids (“Safflower cake” and “Control”) were fed ad libitum with pelleted total mixed rations. After a 7-days adaptation period, the diet of the “Safflower cake” group were supplemented with 20% of safflower cake. The kids were slaughtered at 96 days of age. Dietary safflower cake did not affect the growth traits of kids. In addition, kids fed experimental diet showed a lower feed intake and consequently a better feed conversion ratio in comparison to the “Control” group. The use of safflower decreased the level of SFA and increased the level of MUFA in kid meat. The level of PUFA was higher in lipid extracted from animals feeding “Control“ diet even if the UFA level was lower. Furthermore, lipid extracted from animals feeding control diet contained more ω6 fatty acids in comparison to kids feeding experimental diet while the opposite trend was observed for the level of ω3 fatty acids. The ω6 to ω3 ratio was significantly affected by diet and in particular this ratio decreased in meat of kids fed experimental diet. Our results indicate that intramuscular fatty acid composition of kid meat can be improved from a human health perspective by inclusion of safflower cake in the die
"Lake et al. (2007) observed plasma and adipose tissue of suckling calves were reflective of alternations in long-chain fatty acids of milk from beef cows fed safflower seeds. Scholljegerdes et al. (2004) observed greater duodenal flow of PUFA, more specifically LA, in cattle fed cracked high-linoleate safflower seeds (> 70% LA); however individual ALA fatty concentrations were not changed. Kucuk et al. (2004) also reported a linear increase in duodenal flow of LA and ALA fatty acids concentrations with increasing soybean inclusion in lamb finishing diets. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lambs (n = 48) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate effects of inclusion of oil containing PUFA in high-concentrate diets (with or without) and duration of oil supplementation (pre- vs. postweaning) on CLA concentration of muscle and adipose tissue. Lambs were fed preweaning creep diets (with or without oil) corresponding to the dietary lactation treatment diet (with or without oil) of the dam. Dams blocked by lambing date and rearing type were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 lactation dietary treatments with or without oil supplementation. Creep diets contained approximately 70% concentrate and 30% roughage and were provided to lambs for ad libitum intake. At weaning (58.7 +/- 2.5 d of age), lambs (n = 48) were randomly assigned within preweaning treatment groups to 1 of 2 postweaning dietary treatments (with or without oil) and 16 pens in a randomized block design, blocked by sex and BW. Postweaning diets were formulated to contain approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage and were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. Soybean and linseed oil (2:1, respectively) replaced ground corn and provided 3% additional fat in pre- and postweaning diets. Lambs were slaughtered at 60.3 +/- 4.2 kg of BW. A subcutaneous fat (SQ) sample was obtained within 1 h postmortem and a LM sample at the 12th rib was obtained 24 h postmortem, and both were analyzed for fatty acid profile. Feedlot performance and carcass measurements were not affected (P >or= 0.26) by oil supplementation. Total CLA content of LM and SQ was not affected (P >or= 0.08) by oil supplementation pre- or postweaning, but trans-10, cis-12 CLA was greater (P = 0.02) in SQ from lambs supplemented with oil postweaning. Total PUFA content in LM was greater (P = 0.02) in lambs supplemented with oil pre- or postweaning as a result of increased concentrations of 18:2cis-9, cis-12 and longer chain PUFA. Conversely, pre- and postweaning oil supplementation resulted in less (P = 0.04) MUFA content in LM. Only postweaning oil supplementation increased (P = 0.001) SQ PUFA content. Feeding oils containing PUFA to lambs pre- and postweaning did not increase CLA content of muscle, whereas postweaning oil supplementation minimally increased CLA concentration of SQ fat. Inclusion of soybean and linseed oil in pre- and postweaning diets increased total PUFA content of SQ fat and muscle tissue without adversely affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics.
"The decorticated meal (about 40% protein), with most ofhulls removed and a reduced fibre content, can be used as a protein supplement for low protein forages in livestock diets or in poultry backgrounding diets. Safflower seed can be used as a protein and energy supplement for beef cattle (Bottger et al 2002; Scholljegerdes et al 2004; Bolte et al 2002) and sheep (Kott et al 2003). Prepartum supplementation with safflower seeds high in either linoleate or oleate has increased the subsequent conception rates in prirniparous beef cows (Lammoglia et al 1997). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), which is grown as a high-quality forage crop for dairy cattle and dairy sheep in Mediterranean conditions, has been studied to determine the chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE) and fatty acid (FA) profile of the plant during growth. Herbage samples were collected five times at progressive morphological stages from the late vegetative to the early flower stage. The dry matter, organic matter, fibrous fractions and GE content increased with increasing growth stage, while the ash, crude protein and IVOMD decreased during growth. Linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the two main FAs in the safflower plant during the growth cycle and they ranged from 158 to 188 g/kg and 521 to 586 g/kg of the total FA, respectively. The quality and IVOMD of safflower, like other forages, depends on the development of the plant and decreases with increased maturity. A forage with a good nutritive value can be obtained by harvesting safflower at the early flowering stage.
Livestock Research for Rural Development 01/2009; 21(12).
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