Control of respiration and bioenergetics during muscle contraction.
ABSTRACT (1)H-NMR experiments have determined intracellular O(2) consumption (Vo(2)) with oxymyoglobin (MbO(2)) desaturation kinetics in human calf muscle during plantar flexion exercise at 0.75, 0.92, and 1.17 Hz with a constant load. At the onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) desaturates rapidly. The desaturation rate constant of approximately 30 s reflects the intracellular Vo(2). Although Mb desaturates quickly with a similar time constant at all workload levels, its final steady-state level differs. As work increases, the final steady-state cellular Po(2) decreases progressively. After Mb desaturation has reached a steady state, however, Vo(2) continues to rise. On the basis of current respiratory control models, the analysis in the present report reveals two distinct Vo(2) phases: an ADP-independent phase at the onset of contraction and an ADP-dependent phase after Mb has reached a steady state. In contrast to the accepted view, the initial intracellular Vo(2) shows that oxidative phosphorylation can support up to 36% of the energy cost, a significantly higher fraction than expected. Partitioning of the energy flux shows that a 31% nonoxidative component exists and responds to the dynamic energy utilization-restoration cycle (which lasts for only milliseconds) as postulated in the glycogen shunt theory. The present study offers perspectives on the regulation of respiration, bioenergetics, and Mb function during muscle contraction.
Article: A computational model of skeletal muscle metabolism linking cellular adaptations induced by altered loading states to metabolic responses during exercise.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The alterations in skeletal muscle structure and function after prolonged periods of unloading are initiated by the chronic lack of mechanical stimulus of sufficient intensity, which is the result of a series of biochemical and metabolic interactions spanning from cellular to tissue/organ level. Reduced activation of skeletal muscle alters the gene expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms to meet the functional demands of reduced mechanical load, which results in muscle atrophy and reduced capacity to process fatty acids. In contrast, chronic loading results in the opposite pattern of adaptations. To quantify interactions among cellular and skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations, and to predict metabolic responses to exercise after periods of altered loading states, we develop a computational model of skeletal muscle metabolism. The governing model equations - with parameters characterizing chronic loading/unloading states- were solved numerically to simulate metabolic responses to moderate intensity exercise (WR < or = 40% VO2 max). Model simulations showed that carbohydrate oxidation was 8.5% greater in chronically unloaded muscle compared with the loaded muscle (0.69 vs. 0.63 mmol/min), while fat oxidation was 7% higher in chronically loaded muscle (0.14 vs. 0.13 mmol/min), during exercise. Muscle oxygen uptake (VO2) and blood flow (Q) response times were 29% and 44% shorter in chronically loaded muscle (0.4 vs. 0.56 min for VO2 and 0.25 vs. 0.45 min for Q). The present model can be applied to test complex hypotheses during exercise involving the integration and control of metabolic processes at various organizational levels (cellular to tissue) in individuals who have undergone periods of chronic loading or unloading.BioMedical Engineering OnLine 01/2007; 6:14. · 1.40 Impact Factor
Article: NIRS measurement of O(2) dynamics in contracting blood and buffer perfused hindlimb muscle.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to obtain evidence that Mb releases O(2) during muscle contraction, we have set up a buffer-perfused hindlimb rat model and applied NIRS to detect the dynamics of tissue deoxygenation during contraction. The NIRS signal was monitored on hindlimb muscle during twitch contractions at 1 Hz, evoked via electrostimulator at different submaximal levels. The hindlimb perfusion was carried out by perfusion of Krebs Bicarbonate buffer. The NIRS still detected a strong signal even under Hb-free contractions. The deoxygenation signal (Delta[deoxy]) was progressively increased at onset of the contraction and reached the plateau under both blood- and buffer-perfused conditions. However, the amplitude of Delta[deoxy] during steady state continued to significantly increase as tension increased. The tension-matched comparison of the Delta[deoxy] level under buffer-perfused and blood perfused conditions indicate that Mb can contribute approximately 50% to the NIRS signal. These results clarify the Mb contribution to the NIRS signal and show a falling intracellular PO(2) as workload increases.Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2010; 662:323-8. · 1.09 Impact Factor