Vascular cognitive disorder: a new diagnostic category updating vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia.
ABSTRACT Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) was proposed as an umbrella term to include subjects affected with any degree of cognitive impairment resulting from cerebrovascular disease (CVD), ranging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to vascular dementia. VCI may or may not exclude the host of "focal" circumscribed impairments of specialized functions such as language (aphasia), intentional gesture (apraxia), or categorical recognition (agnosia), among others, that may result from a stroke. Therefore, there are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for VCI. We conclude that this concept could be more useful if it were to be limited to cases of vascular MCI without dementia, by analogy with the concept of amnestic MCI, currently considered the earliest clinically diagnosable stage of Alzheimer disease (AD). In agreement with our view,the Canadian Study on Health and Aging successfully implemented a restricted definition of VCI, excluding cases of dementia (i.e., vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, VCI-ND). The Canadian definition and diagnostic criteria could be utilized for future studies of VCI. This definition excludes isolated impairments of specialized cognitive functions. Vascular dementia (VaD): The main problem of this diagnostic category stems from the currently accepted definition of dementia that requires memory loss as the sine qua non for the diagnosis. This may result in over-sampling of patients with AD worsened by stroke (AD+CVD). This problem was minimized in controlled clinical trials of VaD by excluding patients with a prior diagnosis of AD, those with pre-existing memory loss before the index stroke, and those with amnestic MCI. We propose a definition of dementia in VaD based on presence of abnormal executive control function, severe enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning. Vascular cognitive disorder (VCD): This term, proposed by Sachdev [P. Sachdev, Vascular cognitive disorder. Int J Geriat Psychiatry 14 (1999)402-403.] would become the global diagnostic category for cognitive impairment of vascular origin, ranging from VCI to VaD. It would include specific disease entities such as post-stroke VCI, post-stroke VaD, CADASIL, Binswanger disease, and AD plus CVD. This category explicitly excludes isolated cognitive dysfunctions such as those mentioned above.
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ABSTRACT: Background Vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCIND) refers to the early or mild cognitive impairment induced by cerebral vascular injury. Research shows that serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level is an independent risk factor for cerebral vascular disease and may be closely related to cognitive function.Current studies on the tHcy level in VCIND patients are limited, and the relationship of tHcy with cognitive function remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the tHcy levels in patients with VCIND and to determine their correlation with cognitive function, as well as to provide useful clues for preventing and treating VCIND.Methods The tHcy, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in 82 patients with VCIND were reviewed retrospectively and compared with those of 80 stroke patients without cognitive impairment and 69 healthy controls by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale and the event-related potential P300 to evaluate cognitive function.ResultsThe tHcy levels in the VCIND group were higher than those in the other two groups, whereas the folate and Vitamin B12 levels in the VCIND group were lower than those of the other two groups. The tHcy levels in the stroke group were higher than those in the control group, and the folate and vitamin B12 levels in the stroke group were lower than those in the control group. The patients in the VCIND group with high tHcy exhibited lower MoCA scores and prolonged P300 latency than those in with normal tHcy. Correlation analysis showed that tHcy level is positively correlated with P300 latency period and negatively correlated with MoCA score.Conclusion The tHcy levels were significantly higher and the vitamin B12 and folate levels were significantly lower in the patients with VCIND than those in the other groups. The high tHcy levels in the VCIND patients may be correlated with impaired cognitive function.BMC Neurology 11/2014; 14(1):217. DOI:10.1186/s12883-014-0217-9 · 2.49 Impact Factor
Article: Genetics of Vascular Dementia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genetic studies are transforming the way we diagnose, evaluate and treat patients. The era of genome-wide association studies promised to discover common risk variants in heterogeneous disorders where previous small-scale association studies had on the whole failed. However, as we enter the post-association era a degree of disappoint is felt regarding the lack of risk factors with large effect for a number of disorders including vascular disease. Vascular disorders are sporadic by nature, though a familial component has been observed. This review will focus on vascular dementia, the genetic risk factors for vascular disorders and highlight how new technologies may overcome the limitations of genome-wide association and nominate those genes that influence disease risk.
Executive functioning: Role in early learning processes, impairments in neurological disorders and impact of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)., Edited by K. P. Bennett, 01/2014: chapter Executive function in infants born preterm with varying birth weights and morbidities at emerging adulthood.: pages 81-114; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63321-193-3