Antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: adherence lessons from tuberculosis and leprosy
ABSTRACT Declining drug costs and increases in international donor interest are leading to greater availability of antiretroviral treatment programmes for persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Ensuring adequate adherence to antiretroviral drug therapy is one of the principal challenges facing successful implementation in Africa, where 70% of the world's infected persons live. Tuberculosis and leprosy are two diseases of global importance whose control programmes can provide important lessons for developing antiretroviral drug adherence strategies. This paper examines various approaches used in tuberculosis and leprosy control which could help enhance adherence to antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.
SourceAvailable from: Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High adherence is key to microbicide effectiveness. Here we provide a description of adherence interventions and the adherence rates achieved in the CAPRISA 004 Tenofovir gel trial. Adherence support for the before-and-after dosing strategy (BAT 24) was provided at enrolment and at each monthly study visit. This initially comprised individual counselling and was replaced midway by a structured theory-based adherence support program (ASP) based on motivational interviewing. The 889 women were followed for an average of 18 months and attended a total of 17,031 monthly visits. On average women reported five sex acts and returned 5.9 empty applicators per month. The adherence rate based on applicator count in relation to all reported sex acts was 72.2 % compared to the 82.0 % self-reported adherence during the last sex act. Adherence support activities, which achieve levels of adherence similar to or better than those achieved by the CAPRISA 004 ASP, will be critical to the success of future microbicide trials.AIDS and Behavior 03/2014; 18(5). DOI:10.1007/s10461-014-0751-x · 3.49 Impact Factor
Article: Postgraduate Education and TrainingBMJ Clinical Research 01/1970; DOI:10.1136/bmj.1.5688.115 · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV research has identified approaches that can be combined to be more effective in transmission reduction than any 1 modality alone: delayed adolescent sexual debut, mutual monogamy or sexual partner reduction, correct and consistent condom use, pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral antiretroviral drugs or vaginal microbicides, voluntary medical male circumcision, antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention (including prevention of mother to child HIV transmission [PMTCT]), treatment of sexually transmitted infections, use of clean needles for all injections, blood screening prior to donation, a future HIV prime/boost vaccine, and the female condom. The extent to which evidence-based modalities can be combined to prevent substantial HIV transmission is largely unknown, but combination approaches that are truly implementable in field conditions are likely to be far more effective than single interventions alone. Analogous to PMTCT, "treatment as prevention" for adult-to-adult transmission reduction includes expanded HIV testing, linkage to care, antiretroviral coverage, retention in care, adherence to therapy, and management of key co-morbidities such as depression and substance use. With successful viral suppression, persons with HIV are far less infectious to others, as we see in the fields of sexually transmitted infection control and mycobacterial disease control (tuberculosis and leprosy). Combination approaches are complex, may involve high program costs, and require substantial global commitments. We present a rationale for such investments and cite an ongoing research agenda that seeks to determine how feasible and cost-effective a combination prevention approach would be in a variety of epidemic contexts, notably that in a sub-Saharan Africa.Current HIV/AIDS Reports 03/2013; 10(2). DOI:10.1007/s11904-013-0155-y