Declining drug costs and increases in international donor interest are leading to greater availability of antiretroviral treatment programmes for persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Ensuring adequate adherence to antiretroviral drug therapy is one of the principal challenges facing successful implementation in Africa, where 70% of the world's infected persons live. Tuberculosis and leprosy are two diseases of global importance whose control programmes can provide important lessons for developing antiretroviral drug adherence strategies. This paper examines various approaches used in tuberculosis and leprosy control which could help enhance adherence to antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the sustained efficacy of a group-based cognitive-behavioural stress management (CBSM) intervention in comparison to a modified wait-list control condition on measures of mood, coping and social support in mildly symptomatic HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men. Participants were recruited largely during the era prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; 1992-1997).
Men were randomized to either a 10-week, group-based CBSM intervention (n = 83) or a psychoeducational seminar group (n = 46). All participants completed a battery of psychosocial questionnaires administered by a research assistant at baseline, immediately following the 10-week CBSM intervention period, and at a 6-month follow-up.
Men in the CBSM group maintained previously observed effects on depressive symptoms and perceived social support. These sustained effects of CBSM on depressive symptoms were mediated by 10-week increases in cognitive coping (i.e. positive reframing).
CBSM appears to be a potentially efficacious treatment that reduces and maintains lower levels of depressive symptoms and enhances social support in HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men. In particular, changes in positive reframing during the 10-week intervention period remain a crucial factor contributing to sustained reductions in depressive symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, describes not one but two discrete diseases: that caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and that caused by T. b. gambiense. The Gambian form is currently a major public health problem over vast areas of central and western Africa, while the zoonotic, Rhodesian form continues to present a serious health risk in eastern and southern Africa. The two parasites cause distinct clinical manifestations, and there are significant differences in the epidemiology of the diseases caused. We discuss the differences between the diseases caused by the two parasites, with an emphasis on disease burden, reservoir hosts, transmission, diagnosis, treatment and control. We analyse how these differences impacted on historical disease control trends and how they can inform contemporary treatment and control options. We consider the optimal ways in which to devise HAT control policies in light of the differing biology and epidemiology of the parasites, and emphasise, in particular, the wider aspects of control policy, outlining the responsibilities of individuals, governments and international organisations in control programmes.
Advances in Parasitology 02/2006; 61:167-221. DOI:10.1016/S0065-308X(05)61005-6 · 6.23 Impact Factor
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