Comparison of frozen and RNALater solid tissue storage methods for use in RNA expression microarrays
ABSTRACT Primary human tissues are an invaluable widely used tool for discovery of gene expression patterns which characterize disease states. Tissue processing methods remain unstandardized, leading to unanswered concerns of how to best store collected tissues and maintain reproducibility between laboratories. We subdivided uterine myometrial tissue specimens and stored split aliquots using the most common tissue processing methods (fresh, frozen, RNALater) before comparing quantitative RNA expression profiles on the Affymetrix U133 human expression array. Split samples and inclusion of duplicates within each processing group allowed us to undertake a formal genome-wide analysis comparing the magnitude of result variation contributed by sample source (different patients), processing protocol (fresh vs. frozen vs. 24 or 72 hours RNALater), and random background (duplicates). The dataset was randomly permuted to define a baseline pattern of ANOVA test statistic values against which the observed results could be interpreted.
14,639 of 22,283 genes were expressed in at least one sample. Patient subjects provided the greatest sources of variation in the mixed model ANOVA, with replicates and processing method the least. The magnitude of variation conferred by processing method (24 hours RNALater vs 72 hours RNALater vs. fresh vs frozen) was similar to the variability seen within replicates. Subset analysis of the test statistic according to gene functional class showed that the frequency of "outlier" ANOVA results within each functional class is overall no greater than expected by chance.
Ambient storage of tissues for 24 or 72 hours in RNALater did not contribute any systematic shift in quantitative RNA expression results relative to the alternatives of fresh or frozen tissue. This nontoxic preservative enables decentralized tissue collection for expression array analysis without a requirement for specialized equipment.
SourceAvailable from: Anita Y Voigt[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metagenomics has become a prominent approach for exploring the role of the gut microbiota in human health. However, the temporal variability of the healthy gut microbiome has not yet been studied in depth using metagenomics and little is known about the effects of different sampling and preservation approaches. We performed metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from seven subjects collected over a period of up to two years to investigate temporal variability and assess preservation-induced variation, specifically, fresh frozen compared to RNALater. We also monitored short-term disturbances caused by antibiotic treatment and bowel cleansing in one subject. We find that the human gut microbiome is temporally stable and highly personalized at both taxonomic and functional levels. Over multiple time points, samples from the same subject clustered together, even in the context of a large dataset of 888 European and American fecal metagenomes. One exception was observed in an antibiotic intervention case where, more than one year after the treatment, samples did not resemble the pre-treatment state. Clustering was not affected by the preservation method. No species differed significantly in abundance, and only 0.36% of gene families were differentially abundant between preservation methods. Technical variability is small compared to the temporal variability of an unperturbed gut microbiome, which in turn is much smaller than the observed between-subject variability. Thus, short-term preservation of fecal samples in RNALater is an appropriate and cost-effective alternative to freezing of fecal samples for metagenomic studies.Genome biology 04/2015; 16(1):73. DOI:10.1186/s13059-015-0639-8 · 10.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plant tissues must be preserved in their collection state, especially for genome-wide expression profile studies. Lyophilization is a feasible, affordable tool when fresh tissues cannot be shipped at ultralow temperatures from their origin to the place of analysis. In this study, the total RNA quality of dormant grapevine buds (Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Flame Seedless’) of freeze-dried samples stored at room temperature conditions was evaluated and compared to that of cryopreserved (-80°C) grapevine buds.Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 02/2015; 47(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ejbt.2015.01.002 · 0.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traditional nucleic acids preservation methods rely on maintaining samples in cold environments, which are costly to operate and time sensitive. Recent work validated that using room temperature for the storage of nucleic acids is possible if the samples are completely protected from water and oxygen. Here, we conducted accelerated aging and real-time degradation studies to evaluate the new technology DNAshell and RNAshell, which preserves DNA and RNA at room temperature, including the DNA and RNA yield, purity, and integrity. DNA and RNA solutions are dried in the presence of stabilizers in stainless steel minicapsules, then redissolved after different time points of heating and storing at room temperature. Results show that DNAshell and RNAshell ensure the safe storage of nucleic acids at room temperature for long periods of time, and that the quality of these nucleic acids is suitable for common downstream analysis.Biopreservation and Biobanking 02/2015; 13(1):49-55. DOI:10.1089/bio.2014.0060 · 1.58 Impact Factor