Athens University School of Nursing ICU at KAT General Hospital, Athens, Greece.Critical care nursing quarterly 10/2004; 27(4):353-79. DOI: 10.1097/00002727-200410000-00006
Respiratory failure is defined as a failure in gas exchange due to an impaired respiratory system--either pump or lung failure, or both. The hallmark of respiratory failure is impairment in arterial blood gases. This review describes the mechanisms leading to respiratory failure, the indices that can be used to better describe gas exchange abnormalities and the physiologic and clinical consequences of these abnormalities. The possible causes of respiratory failure are then briefly mentioned and a quick reference to the clinical evaluation of such patients is made. Finally treatment options are briefly outlined for both acute and chronic respiratory failure.
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ABSTRACT: Urethane-anesthetized rats were used to study the mechanism of cocaine-induced death. Continuous recording of the changes in five physiological parameters, including respiratory rate (RR), electroencephalogram (EEG), blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram (ECG), and body temperature (BT), were conducted after intraperitoneal (IP) administration of a single dose of cocaine HCl (70 mg/kg). In the control group (normothermic with core body temperature 37.7 +/- 0.1 degree C and spontaneously breathing), the death rate was 88% (15/17), and the average time to respiratory arrest was 12.99 +/- 1.40 min (mean +/- SEM). The first set of experiments investigated the contribution of hypothermia to cocaine-induced death. The hypothermic group (core body temperature 33.9 +/- 0.3 degrees C and spontaneously breathing) had a death rate of 81.5% (22/27), and an average time to respiratory arrest of 16.70 +/- 1.24 min, which was significantly (p les than 0.05) prolonged. A substantial decrease in respiratory rate was seen in normothermic group, while all the other measured parameters remained relatively stable until respiratory arrest. Sequential arterial blood gas data in this group showed a decrease in PaO2 from 116.0 +/- 5.7 mmHg to 57.7 +/- 4.6 mmHg, an increase in PaCO2 from 27.7 +/- 2.2 mmHg to 42.7 +/- 3.0 mmHg, and a decrease in pH from 7.467 +/- 0.039 to 7.357 +/- 0.003. To confirm that respiratory depression was an important mechanism of cocaine-induced death in this model, ten normothermic rats underwent mechanical ventilation, and all survived cocaine exposure. This study points to the important role of respiratory depression as a cause of cocaine-induced death.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 08/1991; 39(3):625-33. DOI:10.1016/0091-3057(91)90138-R · 2.78 Impact Factor
Article: Respiratory acid-base disorders
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ABSTRACT: Emphysema is caused by exposure to cigarette smoking as well as alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency. It has been estimated to cost the National Health Service (NHS) in excess of 800 million pounds per year in related health care costs. The challenges for Critical Care nurses are those associated with dynamic hyperinflation, Auto-PEEP, malnutrition and the weaning from invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation. In this paper we consider the impact of the pathophysiology of emphysema, its effects on other body systems as well as the impact acute exacerbations have when patients are admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.Intensive and Critical Care Nursing 01/2007; 22(6):329-37. DOI:10.1016/j.iccn.2006.03.003
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