Leisure-time physical activity among pregnant women in the US
ABSTRACT Few population-based data exist that describe leisure-time physical activity among pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to characterise the prevalence of leisure activity and to examine characteristics associated with participation in leisure activity during pregnancy. Using data collected from the year 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, information on leisure activity was collected during telephone interviews from 1979 pregnant women and 44,657 non-pregnant women 18-44 years of age, representative of the US population. The prevalence of any leisure activity in the past month was 65.6%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 62.0, 69.1, among pregnant women and 73.1% [95% CI 72.4, 73.9] among non-pregnant women. The prevalence of recommended activity was also lower among pregnant women than non-pregnant women (15.8% vs. 26.1%). The most common leisure activity for pregnant women was walking, followed by activities such as swimming laps, weight lifting, gardening, and aerobics. Among pregnant women, any leisure activity was significantly higher for those with higher education, younger age, and excellent or very good health than for those with fair or poor health. Pregnant women reported less leisure activity than non-pregnant women of the same age. Studies to understand the enablers and barriers to participating in leisure activity during pregnancy are needed.
- SourceAvailable from: Anita Cramp[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mental and physical health benefits of exercise during pregnancy highlight the importance of understanding the determinants of pregnant women's physical activity. This paper presents a review of the existing research on pregnancy and physical activity, in order to (a) summarize the existing body of literature since 1986 examining changes in physical activity during pregnancy, (b) summarize correlates and predictors of physical activity during pregnancy, and (c) present directions for future research. A literature search yielded 25 articles published from 1986 to 2009 in English peer-reviewed journals. The major findings were categorized into the following: (a) exercise patterns, (b) demographic correlates/predictors, (c) the influence of pre-pregnancy exercise on pregnancy exercise, (d) theory-based predictors and (f) other correlates of exercise (e.g. general health and safety concerns). Results indicated that pregnant women are less active than non-pregnant women and that pregnancy leads to a decrease in physical activity. Consistent demographic predictors of higher exercise participation during pregnancy include higher education and income, not having other children in the home, being white, and being more active prior to becoming pregnancy. Only a few studies used theoretical models to understand physical activity during pregnancy with varied results. The review outlines demographic and theory-based correlates/predictors that should be taken into consideration when developing interventions to increase physical activity among pregnant women.03/2011; 14(4):299-305. DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2011.02.006
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nowadays special attention is paid to prenatal exposures to maternal lifestyle factors and their impact on a child development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of modifiable maternal lifestyle factors on child neurodevelopment based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort study. The current analysis included 538 mother-child pairs. The following factors related to maternal lifestyle were considered: smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (based on the cotinine level in maternal saliva measured using LC-ESI+MS/MS method), alcohol consumption and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, and folic acid supplementations before and during pregnancy based on questionnaire data. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the ages of one and two by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Significant association was observed between prenatal exposure to tobacco constituents and a decreased child motor development in assessments performed at both ages (β=-0.8, p=0.01; β=-1.4, p<0.001). Maternal pre-pregnancy underweight was associated with decreased language abilities at 12months of age (β=-5.2, p=0.01) and cognitive and motor development at 24months of age, for which the associations were of borderline significance (p=0.06). The recommended level of LTPA during pregnancy was beneficial for child language development at two years of age (β=4.8, p=0.02). For alcohol and folic acid consumption there were no significant associations with any of the analyzed domains of child neurodevelopment. Children prenatally exposed to tobacco compounds and those of underweight mothers had a decreased psychomotor development. The recommended level of LTPA during pregnancy had positive impact on child development. These results underscore the importance of policies and public health interventions promoting healthy lifestyle among women in reproductive age and during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Early human development 04/2015; 91(5):317-325. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.03.002 · 1.93 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction Chronic hypertension (CH) and previous preeclampsia (PE) are considered risk factors for developing PE. Physical activity (PA) has been proposed as an important part of hypertension’s treatment and has been studied as a possibility for the prevention of PE and its complications.PA is recommended during pregnancy because it may be beneficial to maternal health.Furthermore, it is considered a safe activity for the mother and fetus. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the association between exercise in pregnant women with CH and/or previous PE and type of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods Randomized clinical trial performed between January, 2008 and November, 2011, at the Women’s Hospital Dr.José Aristodemo Pinotti–CAISM/Unicamp, Brazil, enrolled 116 pregnant women presenting CH, previous PE or both factors associated.Women from 12 to 20 gestational weeks were selected from the prenatal outpatient clinic and randomly allocated to the study (SG) or non-interventional group (NIG). Women at the SG performed physical exercise using stationary bicycle (horizontal bench model) during 30 min, once a week, under physical therapist supervision.The HR was maintained at 20% above resting heart rate and up to 140 beats per minute.The NIG followed regular prenatal routine.After birth the data related to type of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected from medical records and analyzed comparing groups.The statistical analyzes was performed by Chi-square test and Fisher’sexact test.The program was SAS 9.1 version.Significance was assumed as p < 0.5%. Results We had 6 drop-outs and 7 that did not deliver at our hospital and we could not retrieve the data.A total of 103 pregnant women were analyzed (53 in the SG and 50 in the NIG). The mean age was 31.4 ± 5.9 and mean of Body Mass Index (BMI) was 34.9 ± 7.9 kg/m2.Considering the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics the SG and NIG were similar and homogeneous.The average exercise sessions conducted by the SG was 10.11 sessions.The cesarean rate was 69.9% in this study, and the most prevalent indication was cephalopelvic disproportion with 34.3%.However, no statistical differences was observed between groups on type of delivery (p = 0.1901), indications for cesarean delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity, rate of PE events and admission in the Intensive Unit Care (ICU). The neonatal outcomes were no significant differences:newborn weigh (p = 0.69), adequacy for gestational age (p = 0.40), gestational age by recent ultrasound (p = 0.20), Apgar 1 min scores (p = 0.12), Apgar 5 min score (p = 0.24), admission to the ICU (p = 0.95) and neonatal morbidity (p = 0.39). Conclusion Exercise using stationary bicycle in pregnant women of high risk for PE (CH and/or previous PE) performed once a week, under physical therapist supervision does not seem to interfere in the type of delivery or maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study suggests that exercise with controlled intensity is safe, with no additional harm towards newborn health and with possible benefits to women’s future health.07/2012; 2(3):185–186. DOI:10.1016/j.preghy.2012.04.021