Leisure-time physical activity among pregnant women in the US

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of NC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 3.13). 11/2004; 18(6):400-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2004.00595.x
Source: PubMed


Few population-based data exist that describe leisure-time physical activity among pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to characterise the prevalence of leisure activity and to examine characteristics associated with participation in leisure activity during pregnancy. Using data collected from the year 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, information on leisure activity was collected during telephone interviews from 1979 pregnant women and 44,657 non-pregnant women 18-44 years of age, representative of the US population. The prevalence of any leisure activity in the past month was 65.6%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 62.0, 69.1, among pregnant women and 73.1% [95% CI 72.4, 73.9] among non-pregnant women. The prevalence of recommended activity was also lower among pregnant women than non-pregnant women (15.8% vs. 26.1%). The most common leisure activity for pregnant women was walking, followed by activities such as swimming laps, weight lifting, gardening, and aerobics. Among pregnant women, any leisure activity was significantly higher for those with higher education, younger age, and excellent or very good health than for those with fair or poor health. Pregnant women reported less leisure activity than non-pregnant women of the same age. Studies to understand the enablers and barriers to participating in leisure activity during pregnancy are needed.

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    • "PA and diet are two key modifiable behavioral factors that influence pregnancy weight gain. During pregnancy, women are less likely to meet PA guidelines than nonpregnant women (Evenson et al., 2004), and activity levels further decline from the second to third trimester (Evenson and Wen, 2011). The majority of women of childbearing age also do not meet federal nutrition guidelines, with \20 % consuming adequate servings of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and milk, and 97 % exceeding the maximum energy allowance for fats and added sugars (Krebs-Smith et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10865-015-9672-z · 3.10 Impact Factor
    • "Fewer than 20% of pregnant women meet American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) physical activity recommendations and a significant number of women tend to exercise less once they become pregnant for various reasons, one of which may be fear of harming their baby (Evenson, Savitz, & Huston, 2004; Pereira et al. 2007; Symons Downs & Hausenblas, 2004). The most often cited barriers to physical activity during pregnancy are tiredness, time constraints, physical limitations, child care responsibilities, and access to exercise facilities (Gatson & Cramp, 2011; Evenson, Moos, Carrier, & Siega- Riz, 2009) The fear of harming the baby or safety concerns about exercising during pregnancy can be an insurmountable barrier to physical activity, even for women who regularly exercised before pregnancy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have looked at the impact of fear on exercise behavior during pregnancy using a fear appeal theory. It is beneficial to understand how women receive the message of safe exercise during pregnancy and whether established guidelines have any influence on their decision to exercise. Using the extended parallel process model (EPPM), we explored women's fears about prenatal physical activity. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study on the fears and barriers to prenatal exercise among a racially/ethnically diverse population of pregnant women. Participants were recruited from local prenatal clinics. Ninety females with a singleton pregnancy between 16 and 30 weeks gestation were enrolled in the study. The primary outcome measure was classification of risk behavior based on the EPPM theory. Women who scored high on self-efficacy for exercising safely were more likely to exercise during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 5.95; 95% CI, 1.39-25.39; P = .016) for at least 90 minutes per week. Participants who exercised at least 90 minutes per week during pregnancy scored higher on their perceived ability to control danger to the baby, as well as less susceptibility of harm and threat to baby of moderate exercise from prenatal exercise. More education and counseling on specific guidelines for safely exercising during pregnancy are needed. The EPPM framework has the potential to help improve health communications about exercise safety and guidelines between patients and health care professionals during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Women s Health Issues 01/2015; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2014.11.009 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Many antenatal exercise interventions, especially those involving overweight and obese women have encountered problems with compliance [37,38]. This may be partly attributed to the general tendency for physical activity levels to decline during pregnancy [39,40], especially in mothers who are obese [41,42], However, many previous exercise studies have also failed to report adequately on compliance with interventions [18]. Previous studies have suggested that home-based exercise interventions can lead to increased compliance, as they enable exercise to be undertaken in a comfortable and familiar environment [43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring and mother. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy such as antenatal exercise, are proposed to improve both short- and long-term health of mother and child. We hypothesise that regular moderate-intensity exercise during the second half of pregnancy will result in improved maternal and offspring outcomes, including a reduction in birth weight and adiposity in the offspring, which may be protective against obesity in later life. The IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Risks of Obesity Via Exercise) study is a two-arm parallel randomised controlled clinical trial being conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Overweight and obese women (BMI >=25 kg/m2) aged 18-40 years, with a singleton pregnancy of <20 weeks of gestation, from the Auckland region, are eligible for the trial. Exclusion criteria are ongoing smoking or medical contra-indications to antenatal exercise.Participants are randomised with 1:1 allocation ratio to either intervention or control group, using computer-generated randomisation sequences in variable block sizes, stratified on ethnicity and parity, after completion of baseline assessments. The intervention consists of a 16-week structured home-based moderate-intensity exercise programme utilising stationary cycles and heart rate monitors, commencing at 20 weeks of gestation. The control group do not receive any exercise intervention. Both groups undergo regular fetal ultrasonography and receive standard antenatal care. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants are un-blinded to group assignment during the trial.The primary outcome is offspring birth weight. Secondary offspring outcomes include fetal and neonatal body composition and anthropometry, neonatal complications and cord blood metabolic markers. Maternal outcomes include weight gain, pregnancy and delivery complications, aerobic fitness, quality of life, metabolic markers and post-partum body composition. The results of this trial will provide valuable insights on the effects of antenatal exercise on health outcomes in overweight and obese mothers and their offspring.Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000932864.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 04/2014; 14(1):148. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-148 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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