Leisure-time physical activity among pregnant women in the US
ABSTRACT Few population-based data exist that describe leisure-time physical activity among pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to characterise the prevalence of leisure activity and to examine characteristics associated with participation in leisure activity during pregnancy. Using data collected from the year 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, information on leisure activity was collected during telephone interviews from 1979 pregnant women and 44,657 non-pregnant women 18-44 years of age, representative of the US population. The prevalence of any leisure activity in the past month was 65.6%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 62.0, 69.1, among pregnant women and 73.1% [95% CI 72.4, 73.9] among non-pregnant women. The prevalence of recommended activity was also lower among pregnant women than non-pregnant women (15.8% vs. 26.1%). The most common leisure activity for pregnant women was walking, followed by activities such as swimming laps, weight lifting, gardening, and aerobics. Among pregnant women, any leisure activity was significantly higher for those with higher education, younger age, and excellent or very good health than for those with fair or poor health. Pregnant women reported less leisure activity than non-pregnant women of the same age. Studies to understand the enablers and barriers to participating in leisure activity during pregnancy are needed.
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ABSTRACT: The significant impact of physical activity during, or immediately prior to pregnancy on a range of pregnancy and birth outcomes has been established. However, lifecourse theory posits that the antecedents of poor outcomes occur across a larger trajectory of time. The objective of this study was to examine whether physical activity patterns over the lifecourse impact birth outcomes. The sample (n = 1,713) was derived from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and limited to women who had their first, singleton live birth between Waves III and IV; respondents who had missing data were excluded. Outcome variables included preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<5.5 pounds). Physical activity was categorized as follows: long-term physically active (active at Waves I and III); short-term physically active (active at only Wave I or III); and not physically active (not active at Waves I and III). Survey-weighted logistic regression controlled for socio-demographic and established predictors of poor birth outcomes. Women categorized as long-term physically active had lower rates of preterm births (12.2 vs. 18.7 %) and low birth weight (9.1 vs. 11.1 %) compared to women categorized as not physically active. However, when controlling for covariates, adjusted analysis revealed that physical activity consistency only predicted preterm birth (aOR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.33-0.91). Findings suggest that physical activity patterns across the lifecourse may decrease risk of preterm birth. Implications include efforts supporting patterns of physical activity over longer periods of time prior to pregnancy.Maternal and Child Health Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10995-015-1691-4 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Few studies have looked at the impact of fear on exercise behavior during pregnancy using a fear appeal theory. It is beneficial to understand how women receive the message of safe exercise during pregnancy and whether established guidelines have any influence on their decision to exercise. Using the extended parallel process model (EPPM), we explored women's fears about prenatal physical activity. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study on the fears and barriers to prenatal exercise among a racially/ethnically diverse population of pregnant women. Participants were recruited from local prenatal clinics. Ninety females with a singleton pregnancy between 16 and 30 weeks gestation were enrolled in the study. The primary outcome measure was classification of risk behavior based on the EPPM theory. Women who scored high on self-efficacy for exercising safely were more likely to exercise during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 5.95; 95% CI, 1.39-25.39; P = .016) for at least 90 minutes per week. Participants who exercised at least 90 minutes per week during pregnancy scored higher on their perceived ability to control danger to the baby, as well as less susceptibility of harm and threat to baby of moderate exercise from prenatal exercise. More education and counseling on specific guidelines for safely exercising during pregnancy are needed. The EPPM framework has the potential to help improve health communications about exercise safety and guidelines between patients and health care professionals during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Women s Health Issues 01/2015; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2014.11.009 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nowadays special attention is paid to prenatal exposures to maternal lifestyle factors and their impact on a child development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of modifiable maternal lifestyle factors on child neurodevelopment based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort study. The current analysis included 538 mother-child pairs. The following factors related to maternal lifestyle were considered: smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (based on the cotinine level in maternal saliva measured using LC-ESI+MS/MS method), alcohol consumption and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, and folic acid supplementations before and during pregnancy based on questionnaire data. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the ages of one and two by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Significant association was observed between prenatal exposure to tobacco constituents and a decreased child motor development in assessments performed at both ages (β=-0.8, p=0.01; β=-1.4, p<0.001). Maternal pre-pregnancy underweight was associated with decreased language abilities at 12months of age (β=-5.2, p=0.01) and cognitive and motor development at 24months of age, for which the associations were of borderline significance (p=0.06). The recommended level of LTPA during pregnancy was beneficial for child language development at two years of age (β=4.8, p=0.02). For alcohol and folic acid consumption there were no significant associations with any of the analyzed domains of child neurodevelopment. Children prenatally exposed to tobacco compounds and those of underweight mothers had a decreased psychomotor development. The recommended level of LTPA during pregnancy had positive impact on child development. These results underscore the importance of policies and public health interventions promoting healthy lifestyle among women in reproductive age and during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Early human development 04/2015; 91(5):317-325. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.03.002 · 1.93 Impact Factor