Categorical and dimensional reports of experienced affect to emotion-inducing pictures in depression

Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 2EF, United Kingdom.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.86). 11/2004; 113(4):654-60. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.113.4.654
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Self-reported affect to positive and negative emotional pictures was contrasted in people with major depressive disorder (MDD) and never-depressed control participants (n = 25 in each group). The results revealed significant differences in response to positive images (reduced arousal, less pleasant valence, decreased happiness, increased sadness) in MDD but no clear group differences in response to negative stimuli. Extending earlier findings of reduced responsiveness to positive, but not negative, stimuli in MDD (D. M. Sloan, M. E. Strauss, S. W. Quirk, & M. Satajovik, 1997; D. M. Sloan, M. E. Strauss, & K. L. Wisner, 2001), the data indicate that blunted response to positive stimuli is found when both categorical and dimensional ratings are elicited. Further, the data replicate earlier findings of elevated sadness reports to positive stimuli (J. Rottenberg, K. L. Kasch, J. J. Gross, & I. H. Gotlib, 2002), which may reflect broader difficulties in regulating emotions in MDD.

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Available from: Rhodri Cusack, Jul 29, 2015
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    • "depression is associated with similar or reduced responses to negative stimuli compared to people without depression (Allen, Trinder, & Brennan, 1999; Berenbaum & Oltmanns, 1992; Dunn, Dalgleish, Lawrence, Cusack, & Ogilvie, 2004; Gehricke & Shapiro, 2000; Sloan, Strauss, Quirk, & Sajatovic, 1997; Sloan, Strauss, & Wisner, 2001). In addition, studies have found that depression is associated with reduced responses to positive stimuli (Allen et al., 1999; Berenbaum & Oltmanns, 1992; Dunn et al., 2004; Katsikitis & Pilowsky, 1991; Rottenberg, 2005; Rottenberg, Kasch, Gross, & Gotlib, 2002; Shestyuk, Deldin, Brand, & Deveney, 2005; Sloan et al., 1997, 2001). In short, these studies suggest, somewhat counterintuitively, that depression is associated with an overall dampening of both positive and negative emotion responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current studies were designed to investigate if the emotion context insensitivity hypothesis (ECI; Rottenberg & Gotlib, 2004) is applicable across the time course of emotion. Recent affective science research has pointed to the importance of considering anticipation and maintenance of emotion. In the current studies, we assessed emotion responses among college students with depression symptoms in anticipation of, during, and after an emotional picture using the emotion modulated startle paradigm. People with and without depression symptoms did not differ in blink magnitude in anticipation of emotional pictures suggesting that some anticipatory processes may not be impaired by depression symptoms. In contrast, individuals with depression symptoms did not exhibit blink magnitudes that varied by valence, either during viewing or after the pictures were removed from view. These findings suggest that ECI is relevant not only for those diagnosed with major depressive disorder, but also for people with depression symptoms that may not cross the diagnostic threshold. These data also point to the importance of considering the time course of emotion to better understand emotional deficits in individuals with differing levels of depression symptoms. Identifying where emotion goes awry across the time course of emotion can help inform treatment development.
    Cognition and Emotion 11/2012; 26(7):1153-75. DOI:10.1080/02699931.2011.638909 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    • "Second, anhedonia, or reduced capacity to experience pleasure or PA from events or activities that are normally rated as interesting or pleasant, is a core symptom of depression. There is experimental evidence showing lower levels of PA in depressed patients (Clark et al, 1994), decreased reward sensitivity toward positive stimuli (Sloan et al, 1997; Dunn et al, 2004; Shankman et al, 2007), and altered reward-related decision making (Forbes et al, 2007). Taken together, the findings suggest that depressed individuals show altered Stress-Sensitivity together with a diminished ability to make use of natural rewards generating positive emotions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression has often been associated with increased negative affect reactivity to stress (Stress-Sensitivity) and reduced capacity to experience pleasure or positive affect (Reward Experience). To date, no studies have prospectively examined changes in Stress-Sensitivity and Reward Experience following antidepressant treatment. The sample included 83 depressed patients and 22 healthy controls. A randomized controlled trial was carried out with patients receiving either imipramine or placebo for 6 weeks. At baseline and 6 weeks, patients and controls participated in an Experience Sampling procedure, prospectively measuring ecologically valid daily life appraisals of activities and mood states. The course of depression was assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Multilevel linear regression analyses showed that patients had higher negative and lower positive appraisals of activities than controls. In addition, patients showed increased Stress-Sensitivity (negative affect reactivity to negatively appraised activities). Treatment with imipramine decreased Stress-Sensitivity and increased Reward Experience (positive affect reactivity to positively appraised activities). Changes in Stress-Sensitivity and Reward Experience were in part reducible to changes in the process of activity appraisal itself. However, increase in Reward Experience, but not decrease in Stress-Sensitivity, discriminated between patients who responded and those who did not, independent of changes in the process of activity appraisal itself. Response to treatment in depression may be conditional on restoration of hedonic capacity, the cerebral substrate of which requires further study in relation to antidepressant response. A search for (synergistic) antidepressant therapies specifically targeting ability to experience reward may be warranted.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2008; 34(4):923-31. DOI:10.1038/npp.2008.66 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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    • "A number of studies have found that individuals with depression exhibit deficits not only in responses to positively valenced stimuli, but to negatively valenced stimuli or events as well (Kaviani et al., 2004; Peeters, Nicolson, Berkhof, Delespaul, & deVries, 2003; Rottenberg et al., 2002). Other research has found no differences in responses to unpleasant stimuli in depressed people compared with controls (Dunn et al., 2004; Sloan et al., 2001). Thus, although deficits in responses to positive stimuli in depression seem robust, responses to negatively valenced stimuli have been found to be more variable . "
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    ABSTRACT: The authors examined the time course of affective responding associated with different affective dimensions--anxious apprehension, anxious arousal, and anhedonic depression--using an emotion-modulated startle paradigm. Participants high on 1 of these 3 dimensions and nonsymptomatic control participants viewed a series of affective pictures with acoustic startle probes presented before, during, and after the stimuli. All groups exhibited startle potentiation during unpleasant pictures and in anticipation of both pleasant and unpleasant pictures. Compared with control participants, symptomatic participants exhibited sustained potentiation following the offset of unpleasant stimuli and a lack of blink attenuation during and following pleasant stimuli. Common and unique patterns of affective responses in the 3 types of mood symptoms are discussed.
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