Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adults Exposed to Arsenic-Contaminated Drinking Water

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, 800 Sumter St, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 11/2004; 94(11):1936-7. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.94.11.1936
Source: PubMed


Inorganic arsenic is naturally occurring in groundwaters throughout the United States. This study investigated arsenic exposure and self-report of 9 chronic diseases. We received private well-water samples and questionnaires from 1185 people who reported drinking their water for 20 or more years. Respondents with arsenic levels of 2 microg/L or greater were statistically more likely to report a history of depression, high blood pressure, circulatory problems, and bypass surgery than were respondents with arsenic concentrations less than 2 microg/L.

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    • "Additionally, there are places where access to drinking water containing arsenic within the WHO limits is simply not possible, and populations within these regions are exposed to excessive arsenic (in the parts-per-million range) resulting in damage to almost every organ system, including the brain (Jiang et al., 2013; Bustaffa et al., 2014). Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that even low levels of arsenic exposure can negatively impact the body, including increasing the propensity toward developing psychiatric disorders and cognitive dysfunction (Zierold et al., 2004; Brinkel et al., 2009). Importantly, in utero and developmental arsenic exposure results in learning and memory deficits in children and may underlie long-lasting susceptibility to disease later in life (reviewed in Tyler and Allan, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies report that arsenic exposure via drinking water adversely impacts cognitive development in children and, in adults, can lead to greater psychiatric disease susceptibility, among other conditions. While it is known that arsenic toxicity alters the epigenome, very few studies have investigated its effects on chromatin architecture in the brain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to a low level of arsenic (50ppb) during all three trimesters of fetal/neonatal development induces deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), depressive-like symptoms, and alterations in gene expression in the adult mouse brain. As epigenetic processes control these outcomes, here we assess the impact of our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) paradigm on global histone posttranslational modifications and expression of associated chromatin-modifying proteins in the dentate gyrus and frontal cortex (FC) of adult male and female mice. DAE influenced histone 3K4 trimethylation with increased levels in the male DG and FC and decreased levels in the female DG (no change in female FC). The histone methyltransferase MLL exhibited a similar sex- and region- specific expression profile as H3K4me3 levels, while histone demethylase KDM5B expression trended in the opposite direction. DAE increased histone 3K9 acetylation levels in the male DG along with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression of GCN5 and decreased H3K9ac levels in the male FC along with decreased HAT expression of GCN5 and PCAF. DAE decreased expression of histone deacetylase enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2, which were concurrent with increased H3K9ac levels but only in the female DG. Levels of H3 and H3K9me3 were not influenced by DAE in either brain region of either sex. These findings suggest that exposure to a low, environmentally relevant level of arsenic during development induces alterations in the adult brain via histone modifications and chromatin modifiers a sex- and region-specific manner. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/2015; 288(1). DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2015.07.013 · 3.71 Impact Factor
    • "Piped drinking water supply is available in a high proportion of dwellings in Hungary (92% in 2000 and above 95% in 2011) (Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, 2012). Taken together that some findings suggest that arsenic exposition is associated with depression and that depression is the main known risk factor for suicide, we hypothesized that consumption of arseniccontaminated drinking water may be associated with elevated suicide risk as well (Sen and Sarathi Biswas, 2012; Tyler and Allan, 2014; Zierold et al., 2004; Rihmer et al., 2013; Mukherjee et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic-contaminated drinking water (ACDW) represents a major global public health problem. A few previous studies suggested that consuming ACDW may be associated with elevated risk for depression. Since depression is the most relevant risk factor for suicide, we hypothesized that consumption of ACDW may be also associated with suicide. To investigate this, we compared the age-standardized suicide rates (SSR) of 1639 Hungarian settlements with low (≤10μg/l), intermediate (11-30μg/l), high (31-50μg/l) and very high (≥51μg/l) levels of arsenic in drinking water. We found a positive association between SSR and consumption of ACDW. (1) we used aggregated (i.e., non-individual) data; (2) we have not adjusted our model for important medical and socio-demographic determinants of suicidal behavior; (3) we had no data on differences in bottled water consumption between settlements. Our results indicate that in addition to its well-known adverse health effects, consumption of ACDW may also be associated with suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 182:23-25. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.034 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Medium Children (6-7 y.o.) ↓capacity in vocabulary Roy et al. 2011 [15] Low and High Children (5-15 y.o.) ↓capacity in vocabulary, language Von Ehrenstein et al. 2007 [16] Low Adults ↓capacity in executive function, mental acuity, verbal skills O'Bryant et al. 2011 [43@BULLET@BULLET] Visual perception Medium Children (6-7 y.o.) ↓capacity in visual search Rosado et al. 2007 [14] Low and High Children (5-15 y.o.) ↓capacity in picture completion, object assembly Von Ehrenstein et al. 2007 [16] Mental health Medium Children ↑risk for ADHD Roy et al. 2011 [15] Low Adults ↑incidence of depression Zierold et al. 2004 [53] Medium Adults ↑symptoms of anxiety Dang et al. 2008 [50], Dang et al. 2009 Low → High Adults ↓quality of life and mental health Syed et al. 2012 [47] High Adults ↑symptoms of altered mental health Fujino et al. 2004 [51] Low → High Adults ↑insomnia ↓general health Guo et al. 2007 [49] Low → High Adults ↑risk of psychiatric disorder, depression, anxiety Sen et al. 2012 [52] Exposure Low: less than 50 μg/L (ppb) urinary arsenic or water arsenic Medium: between 50 μg/L (ppb) and 100 μg/L (ppb) urinary or water arsenic High: more than 100 μg/L (ppb) urinary arsenic or water arsenic with other factors that could affect the outcomes of these studies (Table 2). These include exposures to a mixture of metals, low socioeconomic status, and poor nutrition. "
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic toxicity is a worldwide health concern as several millions of people are exposed to this toxicant via drinking water, and exposure affects almost every organ system in the body including the brain. Recent studies have shown that even low concentrations of arsenic impair neurological function, particularly in children. This review will focus on the current epidemiological evidence of arsenic neurotoxicity in children and adults, with emphasis on cognitive dysfunction, including learning and memory deficits and mood disorders. We provide a cohesive synthesis of the animal studies that have focused on neural mechanisms of dysfunction after arsenic exposure including altered epigenetics; hippocampal function; glucocorticoid and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) pathway signaling; glutamatergic, cholinergic and monoaminergic signaling; adult neurogenesis; and increased Alzheimer’s-associated pathologies. Finally, we briefly discuss new studies focusing on therapeutic strategies to combat arsenic toxicity including the use of selenium and zinc.
    06/2014; 1(2). DOI:10.1007/s40572-014-0012-1
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