p21-activated kinase (Pak)-interacting exchange factor (Pix), a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), has been shown to co-localize with Pak and form activated Cdc42- and Rac1-driven focal complexes. In this study we have presented evidence that treatment of human mesangial cells (HMC) with endothelin 1 (ET-1) and stimulation of adenylate cyclase with either forskolin or with the cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP activated the GTP loading of Cdc42. Transient expression of constitutively active G alpha(s) also stimulated Cdc42. In addition, overexpression of beta(1)Pix enhanced ET-1-induced Cdc42 activation, whereas the expression of beta(1)Pix SH3m(W43K), which lacks the ability to bind Pak, and beta(1)PixDHm(L238R/L239S), which lacks GEF activity, decreased ET-1-induced Cdc42 activation. Furthermore, ET-1 stimulation induced beta(1)Pix translocation to focal complexes. Interestingly, pretreatment of HMC with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors blocked both Cdc42 activation and beta(1)Pix translocation induced by ET-1, indicating the involvement of the PKA pathway. Through site-directed mutagenesis studies of consensus PKA phosphorylation sites and in vitro PKA kinase assay, we have shown that beta(1)Pix is phosphorylated by PKA. Using purified recombinant beta(1)Pix(wt) and beta(1)Pix mutants, we have identified Ser-516 and Thr-526 as the major phosphorylation sites by PKA. beta(1)Pix(S516A/T526A), in which both phosphorylation sites are replaced by alanine, blocks beta(1)Pix translocation and Cdc42 activation. Our results have provided evidence that stimulation of PKA pathway by ET-1 or cAMP analog results in beta(1)Pix phosphorylation, which in turn controls beta(1)Pix translocation to focal complexes and Cdc42 activation.
"For instance, endothelin-1 (ET-1) has emerged as an important regulator of renal physiology and pathophysiology (Kohan et al., 2011a,b). We previously demonstrated that ET-1-induced GTP-loading of Cdc42 and this activation was mediated by β1Pix (Chahdi et al., 2005; Chahdi and Sorokin, 2006). We have also shown that ET-1 induces β1Pix translocation to focal adhesions through a PKA-dependent pathway (Chahdi et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small GTPases function as molecular switches in cell signaling, alternating between an inactive, GDP-bound state, and active GTP-bound state. βPix is one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that catalyze the exchange of bound GDP for ambient GTP. The central goal of this review article is to summarize recent findings on βPix and the role it plays in kidney pathology and physiology. Recent studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the signaling mechanisms mediated by βPix. This manuscript provides a review of the various mechanisms whereby βPix has been shown to function within the kidney through a wide range of actions. Both canonical GEF activity and non-canonical signaling pathways mediated by βPix are discussed. Distribution patterns of βPix in the kidney will be also covered. Much has yet to be discerned, but it is clear that βPix plays a significant role in the kidney.
Frontiers in Physiology 05/2012; 3:154. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00154 · 3.53 Impact Factor
"This signaling involves induced expression of endothelin 2 (Edn2) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2), as well as activation of JAK2, STAT1, and STAT3 proteins through phosphorylation [33-36]. Since it has been shown in other systems that CDC42 can participate in the endothelin  and LIF signaling pathways , we tested whether the ablation of CDC42 in rods might affect the molecular response during retinal degeneration. Semiquantitative analysis of gene expression after light exposure showed a similar fold induction over the respective basal levels in control and Cdc42 knockdown mice (Figure 6A). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rho GTPases such as RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1 (RAC1) and cell division cycle 42 homolog (S. cerevisiae; CDC42) have been linked to cellular processes including movement, development, and apoptosis. Recently, RAC1 has been shown to be a pro-apoptotic factor in the retina during light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Here, we analyzed the role of CDC42 in the degenerating retina.
Photoreceptor degeneration was studied in a mouse model for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (VPP) with or without a rod-specific knockdown of Cdc42, as well as in wild-type and Cdc42 knockdown mice after light exposure. Gene and protein expression were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Retinal morphology and function were assessed by light microscopy and electroretinography, respectively.
CDC42 accumulated in the perinuclear region of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-negative photoreceptors during retinal degeneration induced by excessive light exposure and in the rd1, rd10, and VPP mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa. The knockdown of Cdc42 did not affect retinal morphology or function in the adult mice and did not influence photoreceptor apoptosis or molecular signaling during induced and inherited retinal degeneration.
Retinal degeneration induces the accumulation of CDC42 in the perinuclear region of photoreceptors. In contrast to RAC1, however, lack of CDC42 does not affect the progression of degeneration. CDC42 is also dispensable for normal morphology and function of adult rod photoreceptor cells. RECEIVED: May 25, 2011 ACCEPTED: November 10, 2011.
"Based on the critical role of PKA and STEF in dbcAMP-induced Rac1 activation, we examined whether PKA directly phosphorylates STEF. Figure 6A shows that ∆N-STEF (Matsuo et al., 2002) was efficiently phosphorylated by PKA in vitro; the amount of ∆N-STEF phosphorylation by PKA was comparable to that of PKA-phosphorylated βPix, which phosphorylation was reported previously (Chahdi et al., 2005). Analysis of the primary sequence of STEF revealed that Thr749, Ser782, and Ser1562 as potential PKA phosphorylation sites (Figure 6B). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The second messenger cAMP plays a pivotal role in neurite/axon growth and guidance, but its downstream pathways leading to the regulation of Rho GTPases, centrally implicated in neuronal morphogenesis, remain elusive. We examined spatiotemporal changes in Rac1 and Cdc42 activity and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) concentration in dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP)-treated PC12D cells using Förster resonance energy transfer-based biosensors. During a 30-min incubation with dbcAMP, Rac1 activity gradually increased throughout the cells and remained at its maximal level. There was no change in PIP(3) concentration. After a 5-h incubation with dbcAMP, Rac1 and Cdc42 were activated at the protruding tips of neurites without PIP(3) accumulation. dbcAMP-induced Rac1 activation was principally mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) and Sif- and Tiam1-like exchange factor (STEF)/Tiam2. STEF depletion drastically reduced dbcAMP-induced neurite outgrowth. PKA phosphorylates STEF at three residues (Thr-749, Ser-782, Ser-1562); Thr-749 phosphorylation was critical for dbcAMP-induced Rac1 activation and neurite extension. During dbcAMP-induced neurite outgrowth, PKA activation at the plasma membrane became localized to neurite tips; this localization may contribute to local Rac1 activation at the same neurite tips. Considering the critical role of Rac1 in neuronal morphogenesis, the PKA-STEF-Rac1 pathway may play a crucial role in cytoskeletal regulation during neurite/axon outgrowth and guidance, which depend on cAMP signals.
Molecular biology of the cell 04/2011; 22(10):1780-90. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E10-09-0783 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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