Intravenous cyclophosphamide for lupus nephritis in Thai children.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the efficacy of a 36-month course of intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy for severe lupus nephritis in Thai children between October 1993 and December 2000.
Intravenous cyclophosphamide combined with oral prednisolone was given for 36 months to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who had severe renal involvement. Serum creatinine (Cr), creatinine clearance (CCr), urinary protein, C3, and complete blood count (CBC) were measured each visit for intravenous cyclophosphamide. Repeated measures ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used.
Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, three died and two were lost to follow-up, leaving 16 patients who completed therapy (13 females and three males) with age at diagnosis 12.1+/-2.3 years (range 7.2-20.6 years). The follow-up period was 6.3+/-2.3 years (range 3.3-13.8 years). Fourteen patients had lupus nephritis WHO classification class IV and two had lupus nephritis WHO classification class II. Hypertension was detected in ten patients. Lowess smoothing curves and repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant change in Cr and CCr [probability (p) > 0.05)], but significantly increased C3 and haemoglobin and significantly decreased urinary protein and white blood cell count (p < 0.001). Five patients had six episodes of acute renal failure; one died, renal function returned to normal in two patients, two continued to chronic renal failure, and one died of chronic renal failure. The 5-year survival and renal survival were 86.5% and 87.5% (95% CI 55.8-96.5% and 58.6-96.7%), respectively.
Intravenous cyclophosphamide in severe lupus nephritis in Thai children showed a satisfactory outcome with minimal complications. Further follow-up is needed.