To investigate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on ocular shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1).
Mice that were latent for the McKrae strain of HSV-1 were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, a nonspecific inhibitor of cyclooxygenases, either prophylactically or at the time of heat stress-induced viral reactivation. The effect of the drug on viral shedding in the tear film, infectious virus in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion, and viral DNA in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion was determined.
Acetylsalicylic acid inhibited heat stress-induced shedding of virus in the tears and reduced the numbers of corneal and trigeminal ganglion homogenates containing virus. Intraperitoneal therapeutic and oral prophylactic plus therapeutic treatments were similar in their ability to inhibit reactivation.
The results indicate that a cyclooxygenase inhibitor such as acetylsalicylic acid can reduce recurrent viral infection in mice. These findings may implicate prostaglandins as agents in the viral reactivation process and suggest that therapy to suppress viral reactivation using nontoxic inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis may be effective in humans.
"Therefore, regulating the excessive immune response is crucial in controlling progressive visual impairment in recurrent HSK . Previous reports have shown antiviral activity of a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor against ocular infection with HSV-1 [4-6]. COX inhibitors, which belong to anti-inflammatory drugs, may contribute to controlling the massive immune response at an effective yet not deleterious level. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We designed the current study to determine the protective effects of lornoxicam, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, on recurrent herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) and the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-mediated mechanism in mice.
A corneal latent herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infected mouse model was established. Six weeks later, Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced the recurrence. Corneal swabs were obtained and cultured with indicator cells to determine shedding of the virus. Lornoxicam was administered intraperitoneally daily, beginning one day before irradiation and lasting for seven days. Saline-treated and mock-infected control groups were also studied at the same time. Development of corneal inflammation and opacity was scored. Immunohistochemical staining and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay were performed to evaluate the effect of lornoxicam on NF-kappaB activation in the corneal tissues. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the cornea were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
HSV-1 reactivation induced stromal edema and opacification concomitantly with elevated activation of NF-kappaB and elevated production of TNF-alpha. Lornoxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of recurrent HSK, attenuated the corneal opacity scores, and also effectively suppressed both NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha expression in biological analysis. Histopathology examination revealed a reduced immunostaining positive cell density for NF-kappaB in the cornea from lornoxicam-treated mice as well as a diminished inflammatory response.
Lornoxicam exerts protective effects against HSK, presumably through the down-regulation of NF-kappaB activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent herpes virus infection, in which the virus reactivates from the nervous system and causes painful lesions in peripheral tissues, is a significant clinical problem. Our recent studies showing that the amount of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the trigeminal ganglia of heat-stressed untreated mice is higher than the amount in heat-stressed mice treated with the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, have indicated that the prostaglandin synthesis pathway--and in particular COX-2--may be an intermediate in the pathway to herpes viral reactivation. To further study this process, we infected the corneas of mice using topical application to a lightly scratched epithelium and waited 30 days for Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency to be established in the trigeminal ganglia. Prior to the induction of viral reactivation, the mice were treated orally with celecoxib. Treated and untreated mice were induced to undergo reactivation by immersion in 43 degrees C water for 10 min. The shedding of virus at the ocular surface was determined by culturing ocular swabs with indicator cells. The presence of infectious virus in the trigeminal ganglion was evaluated by incubating ganglion homogenates with indicator cells and observing for cytopathic effect. Celecoxib treatment significantly suppressed viral reactivation when given prophylactically by the gastrointestinal route. The numbers of corneas and ganglia containing infectious virus were significantly lower in the celecoxib-treated animals, compared to the placebo-treated mice. These experiments demonstrate that a selective COX-2 inhibitor can suppress hyperthermic stress-induced herpes viral reactivation in the nervous system. It may be possible to use COX-2 inhibitors to prevent viral reactivation in high-risk patients by drug prophylaxis.
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 05/2005; 21(2):114-20. DOI:10.1089/jop.2005.21.114 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate and compare the neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence after ocular HSV-1 infection in ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) and control C57BL/6 (ApoE+/+) mice.
Age-matched (14 weeks of age) C57BL/6J (ApoE+/+) female mice and female ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice were inoculated by corneal scarification with HSV-1 strain 17Syn+. Analysis of HSV-1 replication in the mouse cornea was assessed through infectious virus assays of ocular (tear film) swabs at 1 to 5 days postinoculation (PI), slit-lamp examination (SLE) of corneas at PI days 1 to 7, and survival of infected mice. The contribution of apoE to the efficient establishment of latency was measured by real-time PCR quantitation of the latent viral genome in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of infected mice.
These studies showed that HSV-1 strain 17Syn+ replicates efficiently in the eyes, regardless of the host ApoE genotype. Neither the scoring of corneal pathology via SLE nor the infectious virus assay of the tear film resulted in any statistical differences between ApoE knockout (-/-) mice or the C57BL/6 (ApoE+/+) mice. In mice latently infected with HSV-1, our real-time PCR data showed significantly lower viral copy numbers of HSV-1 DNA in ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice compared with C57BL/6 (ApoE+/+) mice. C57BL/6 (ApoE+/+) mice are more susceptible to the neurovirulence of HSV-1 strain 17Syn+ than female ApoE knockout (-/-) mice, as demonstrated by the fact that 50% (7/14) of the female C57BL/6 (ApoE+/+) mice inoculated with 17Syn+ died, as opposed to none (0/14) of the age- and sex-matched ApoE knockout mice.
These data indicate that age (14 weeks) and sex-matched (female) wild mice with an ApoE null background (ApoE-/-) are more resistant and less efficient in the establishment of latency compared with ApoE+/+ mice in the C57BL/6 background.
Current Eye Research 10/2006; 31(9):703-8. DOI:10.1080/02713680600864600 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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