Leptin is associated with craving in females with alcoholism.
ABSTRACT The appetite and weight regulating peptide leptin was associated recently with alcohol craving during withdrawal. Nevertheless, correlations were only significant with craving displayed on the visual analogue scale for maximum craving during the previous week (VAS), and not if assessed with the highly validated Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). The objective of the following study, therefore, is to elucidate further the associations between the leptin system and craving concepts during alcohol withdrawal. A sufficiently large sample size should allow multiple statistical subgroup and confounder analyses. We prospectively investigated 102 chronic alcoholic inpatients (23 females, 79 males) during withdrawal on days 0 (admission), 1, 2 and days 7-10. In addition to the statistical analysis of the total sample, females and males were to be analysed separately. For detecting associations between leptin levels and craving scores multiple regression analysis was performed. Plasma leptin levels were determined, and craving for ethanol was assessed by both the OCDS and the VAS. Leptin plasma levels significantly increased during alcohol withdrawal compared to day 0, while all craving scores decreased. Body mass corrected leptin plasma levels predicted craving on day 0 in the OCDS total score (R=0.55, F=7.91, df=1.19, p<0.05) and in the OCDS obsessive subscore (R=0.57, F>=8.48, df=1.19, p<0.05) in females. Neither in males nor in the total population did multiple regression analysis reveal any significant results. Leptin levels seem to change during inpatient alcohol withdrawal. In a multivariate model, correlations between leptin levels and the highly validated craving scores of the OCDS can only be assumed in females. Hence, gender differences have to be taken into account when searching for neurobiological models of alcohol craving.
- SourceAvailable from: Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Leptin, hormone secreted by the fat tissue, changes the signaling of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, which directly affects the sensitivity of reward and modulation of abstinence. Aims: To evaluate the level of serum leptin and its relation to nutritional status among alcoholic abstainers and non-abstinent. Methods: Patients of both sexes, over 18 years old and who used alcohol as their primary drug were included in the study. Abstaining patients were separated according to the time without the use of the drug as A2 (1-3 month-abstainers) and A3 (4 month and over-abstainers). Waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (%BF) and weight and height were measured to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Blood samples were collected for leptin measurement. Results: Mean levels of leptin, leptin/BMI, leptin/%BF were higher in all women categories. Abstaining women (A2) also showed higher leptin, leptin/BMI and leptin/ %BF than non-abstinent (p = 0.039; p = 0.023; p = 0.023). Statistical differences were also shown among abstaining women A2 and A3 as well a significant positive association between leptin levels and BMI and leptin and WC in active female drinkers (leptin x BMI: r = 0.91; p < 0.01; leptin x WC: r = 0.87; p = 0.001). However, a significant association was not shown among these results in abstaining women (leptin x BMI: r = 0.28; p = 0.37/ leptin X WC: r = -0.32, p = 0.92). Conclusion: Our results suggest that leptin levels seem to increase only in abstaining women. This result can be related to the length of abstinence.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2012; 27(3):781-8. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leptin inhibits signaling of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting its role in regulating stress and its possible involvement in the neurobiology of reward system. The aim of this study was to review of the literature on the influence of leptin in the craving for alcohol and tobacco and whether there is already evidence that leptin may be a biomarker to indicate risk for craving and relapse. The review used as data bases Medline, LILACS and SciElo in the period between 2000 and 2012. Keywords were leptin, substance use disorders, craving and withdrawal, in Portuguese and English. Only 12 articles were met the inclusion criteria, relating leptin with craving in alcoholics (n = 10) and smokers (n = 2). No studies were found in the LILACS database. Leptin levels increase during abstinence and this may be related to a reduction of dopaminergic action in mesolimbic system, resulting in a greater intensity of craving and maintenance of addictive behavior. Although there are few studies, the most recent results indicate the usefulness of leptin as a marker of risk for relapse among smokers and alcoholics in abstinence.Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 06/2013; 5(3):164-7.
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ABSTRACT: Childhood maltreatment has been associated with addiction and immune dysregulation, although neurobiological substrates underlying this association remain largely unknown. The aim of the study was to compare plasma levels of adipokines during early abstinence in crack cocaine dependent women with (CM+) and without history of childhood maltreatment (CM-). One hundred four crack cocaine female users were followed for 20 days in a detoxification inpatient treatment unit. Plasma levels of adiponectin, resistin and leptin were assessed every 7 days during 3 weeks of follow-up. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) retrospectively assessed childhood maltreatment history. A healthy control group was included to provide adipokines reference values (HC). All crack users increased leptin plasma levels during early abstinence despite concentrations remained lower in comparison with non-users group. Crack users reporting childhood maltreatment exhibited a significant reduction in plasma levels of adiponectin and resistin when compared to CM- group. In addition, only CM- participants increased plasma levels of adiponectin during detoxification. This is the first study evaluating adipokines during crack cocaine abstinence. Our results suggest a modulator effect of childhood maltreatment on inflammatory status in treatment-seeking crack cocaine dependents during early abstinence.Psychiatry Research 07/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor