The appetite and weight regulating peptide leptin was associated recently with alcohol craving during withdrawal. Nevertheless, correlations were only significant with craving displayed on the visual analogue scale for maximum craving during the previous week (VAS), and not if assessed with the highly validated Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). The objective of the following study, therefore, is to elucidate further the associations between the leptin system and craving concepts during alcohol withdrawal. A sufficiently large sample size should allow multiple statistical subgroup and confounder analyses. We prospectively investigated 102 chronic alcoholic inpatients (23 females, 79 males) during withdrawal on days 0 (admission), 1, 2 and days 7-10. In addition to the statistical analysis of the total sample, females and males were to be analysed separately. For detecting associations between leptin levels and craving scores multiple regression analysis was performed. Plasma leptin levels were determined, and craving for ethanol was assessed by both the OCDS and the VAS. Leptin plasma levels significantly increased during alcohol withdrawal compared to day 0, while all craving scores decreased. Body mass corrected leptin plasma levels predicted craving on day 0 in the OCDS total score (R=0.55, F=7.91, df=1.19, p<0.05) and in the OCDS obsessive subscore (R=0.57, F>=8.48, df=1.19, p<0.05) in females. Neither in males nor in the total population did multiple regression analysis reveal any significant results. Leptin levels seem to change during inpatient alcohol withdrawal. In a multivariate model, correlations between leptin levels and the highly validated craving scores of the OCDS can only be assumed in females. Hence, gender differences have to be taken into account when searching for neurobiological models of alcohol craving.
"(Wrust et al., 2003) no found significant differences between serum leptin levels in alcoholic patients between the first and seventh day of abstinence. Kraus et al. (2004) found a correlation between increased leptin levels with the intensity by craving in alcoholic women. Overall, the results suggest that an increase in leptin levels at the beginning of withdrawal may be considered a factor that influences the increase in drug craving. "
"In patients experiencing alcohol withdrawal, leptin levels are found to be highly correlated with alcohol craving (Kiefer, Jahn, Jaschinski, et al., 2001; Kiefer, Jahn, Kellner, Naber, & Wiedemann, 2001; Kraus et al., 2004). The fact that drugs used to treat alcohol dependence (such as naltrexone and acamprosate) decrease serum leptin in abstinent alcohol addicts suggests that the correlation is meaningful (Kiefer et al., 2005). "
"Depression could be an important mediator of the effect of childhood maltreatment in inflammatory markers (Lopes et al., 2012), however we did not find any difference between CM+ and CM À groups regarding major depression. It is also important to consider that we did not exclude participants with alcohol consume in the last 30 days prior admission despite increased levels of adiponectin , resistin (Hillemacher et al., 2009) and leptin (Kraus et al., 2004) have been reported in alcohol dependence. However, we only included participants with the primary diagnosis of cocaine dependence. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood maltreatment has been associated with addiction and immune dysregulation, although neurobiological substrates underlying this association remain largely unknown. The aim of the study was to compare plasma levels of adipokines during early abstinence in crack cocaine dependent women with (CM+) and without history of childhood maltreatment (CM-). One hundred four crack cocaine female users were followed for 20 days in a detoxification inpatient treatment unit. Plasma levels of adiponectin, resistin and leptin were assessed every 7 days during 3 weeks of follow-up. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) retrospectively assessed childhood maltreatment history. A healthy control group was included to provide adipokines reference values (HC). All crack users increased leptin plasma levels during early abstinence despite concentrations remained lower in comparison with non-users group. Crack users reporting childhood maltreatment exhibited a significant reduction in plasma levels of adiponectin and resistin when compared to CM- group. In addition, only CM- participants increased plasma levels of adiponectin during detoxification. This is the first study evaluating adipokines during crack cocaine abstinence. Our results suggest a modulator effect of childhood maltreatment on inflammatory status in treatment-seeking crack cocaine dependents during early abstinence.
Psychiatry Research 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.007 · 2.47 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.