Chromosomal instability and cytoskeletal defects in oral cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Oral squamous cell carcinomas are characterized by complex, often near-triploid karyotypes with structural and numerical variations superimposed on the initial clonal chromosomal alterations. We used immunohistochemistry combined with classical cytogenetic analysis and spectral karyotyping to investigate the chromosomal segregation defects in cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. During division, these cells frequently exhibit lagging chromosomes at both metaphase and anaphase, suggesting defects in the mitotic apparatus or kinetochore. Dicentric anaphase chromatin bridges and structurally altered chromosomes with consistent long arms and variable short arms, as well as the presence of gene amplification, suggested the occurrence of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Some anaphase bridges were observed to persist into telophase, resulting in chromosomal exclusion from the reforming nucleus and micronucleus formation. Multipolar spindles were found to various degrees in the oral squamous cell carcinoma lines. In the multipolar spindles, the poles demonstrated different levels of chromosomal capture and alignment, indicating functional differences between the poles. Some spindle poles showed premature splitting of centrosomal material, a precursor to full separation of the microtubule organizing centers. These results indicate that some of the chromosomal instability observed within these cancer cells might be the result of cytoskeletal defects and breakage-fusion-bridge cycles.
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ABSTRACT: The protein kinase Mps1 and p53 both function in centrosome duplication and the spindle cell-cycle checkpoint. Defects in these functions can be potent sources of genomic instability by allowing mitosis to proceed with aberrant mitotic spindles.Current Biology 09/1996; 6(8):962-4. · 9.65 Impact Factor
Article: Sister chromatid fusion initiates amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in Chinese hamster cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have utilized a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) probe in combination with selected probes from other positions along the 2q chromosome arm in a two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of early DHFR gene amplification events in CHO cells. These studies show clearly that the most frequent initiating event is the formation of a giant inverted duplication, resulting from chromosome breakage and terminal fusion or a reverse unequal sister chromatid exchange. The dicentric chromosomes thus formed initiate bridge/breakage/fusion cycles that appear to mediate subsequent amplification steps to higher copy number.Genes & Development 05/1993; 7(4):605-20. · 11.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a human fibroblast clone we studied the evolution, during culture propagation, of a dicentric chromosome consisting of the end-to-end association of the short arm of chromosome 5 and the long arm of chromosome 16. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with painting probes allowed us to define the structure of a variety of derivative chromosomes and to identify the mechanisms by which they originated. Asymmetric interchanges involving the intercentromeric region of the dicentric, bridge-breakage-fusion events, or breaks followed by sister chromatid fusion, originate unstable hetero- or homodicentric chromosomes with deletion or duplication; breakages not followed by reunion, or intradicentric recombination, presumably originate stable rearranged monocentric chromosomes. The variety of the derivatives is extremely large because the observed events may involve any site of the intercentromeric region, although the majority of them occurs after a break in 16qh. The results of this investigation document the evolution through successive steps of a telomeric fusion, a chromosome anomaly frequently observed in tumor and senescent cells. They also demonstrate that in cultured cells of normal origin, starting with this anomaly, various chromosomal mechanisms may produce translocations, duplications, and deletions. The karyotype instability produced by a telomeric fusion can be relevant for carcinogenesis because it may generate genetic changes critical in the multistep process of transformation.Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 07/1997; 95(2):130-6. · 1.39 Impact Factor