Involvement of PTEN mutations in the genetic pathways of colorectal cancerogenesis.
ABSTRACT So far, somatic mutations of the PTEN gene have been found in several different neoplasms but not in colorectal tumours. As exons 7 and 8 of the PTEN coding sequence contain an (A)(6)repeat and mononucleotide repeat sequences are targets for mutations in tumours with microsatellite instability (MI), we screened a panel of sporadic colorectal tumours exhibiting MI to test whether PTEN gene repeats are frequently mutated in MI(+)colorectal cancers. Of 32 cases studied, seven mutations were found in six (18.75%) patients, as a PTEN biallelic frameshift mutation was observed in one case, with consequent loss of function of the gene. Loss of heterozygosity, evaluated in the remaining five cases using the microsatellite marker D10S541, was detected in two of three informative samples. To further address the role of the PTEN gene in MI(+)colorectal cancer, in the six patients with mutated PTEN, we analysed the mononucleotide repeats of six other genes: BAX, hMSH3, hMSH6, TGFbRII, IGFIIR and APC. In two of these six patients, mutations of the TGFbRII gene only were present, indicating that PTEN may have a role in the mutator pathway of colorectal tumorigenesis. Overall, these results indicate that PTEN mutations are selected for during tumorigenesis in MI(+)colorectal tumours. The mutation of both PTEN alleles and evidence that the PTEN protein is expressed in normal colon suggest that loss of function of this gene could play a direct role in tumorigenesis.
Article: Novel drugs targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor and its downstream pathways in the treatment of colorectal cancer: a systematic review.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy among men and women in the United States, and the 5-year survival rate remains poor despite recent advances in chemotherapy and targeted agents. The mainstay of therapy for advanced disease remains the cytotoxic chemotherapy including 5-FU, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin. The USFDA approval and introduction of targeted therapies, including cetuximab and panitumumab (monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)) and bevacizumab (monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)), has improved the median survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to around 24 months. Clearly, better and more efficacious drugs are needed, and target-specific agents remain the future of cancer treatment. On this front, rapid advances are being made, which are likely to change the future of the management of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, absence of specific biomarkers for the use of targeted agents, in the subset of population who will benefit from the treatment, remains a major drawback. In this paper, we review agents that are in phases 1 and 2 clinical development, specifically targeting the EGFR and its subsequent downstream pathways.Chemotherapy research and practice. 01/2012; 2012:387172.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with hamartomatous polyposis syndromes have increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Although progression of polyps to carcinoma is observed, pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. The authors examined whether familial hamartomatous polyps harbor defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR), and assayed for somatic mutation of PTEN, a gene inactivated in the germline of some hamartomatous polyposis syndrome patients. Ten hamartomatous polyposis syndrome patients were genotyped for germline mutations. Epithelial and nonepithelial polyp DNA were assayed for microsatellite instability (MSI) and PTEN frameshift mutation. DNA MMR and PTEN protein expression were assessed in all polyps by immunohistochemistry. In addition, 99 MSI-high sporadic CRCs and 50 each of hMLH1(-/-) and hMSH3(-/-) cell clones were examined for PTEN frameshifts. Twenty-five (58%) of 43 hamartomatous polyposis syndrome polyps demonstrated dinucleotide or greater MSI in polyp epithelium, consistent with hMSH3 deficiency. MSI domains lost hMSH3 expression, and PTEN expression was lost in polyps from germline PTEN patients; sporadic hamartomatous polyps did not show any of these findings. PTEN analysis revealed wild type exon 7 and 8 sequences suggestive of nonexistent or rare events for PTEN frameshifts; however, MSI-high sporadic CRC showed 11 (11%) of 99 frameshifts within PTEN, with 4 tumors having complete loss of PTEN expression. Subcloning hMLH1(-/-) and hMSH3(-/-) cells revealed somatic PTEN frameshifts in 4% and 12% of clones, respectively. Nondysplastic epithelium from hamartomatous polyposis syndrome polyps harbors hMSH3 defects, which may prime neoplastic transformation. Polyps from PTEN(+/-) patients lose PTEN expression, but loss is not a universal early feature of all hamartomatous polyposis syndrome. However, PTEN frameshifts can occur in hMSH3-deficient cells, suggesting that hMSH3 deficiency could drive hamartomatous polyposis syndrome tumorigenesis.Cancer 02/2011; 117(3):492-500. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Flanking nucleotide specificity for DNA mismatch repair-deficient frameshifts within activin receptor 2 (ACVR2).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that exonic selectivity for frameshift mutation (exon 10 over exon 3) of ACVR2 in mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cells is partially determined by 6 nucleotides flanking 5' and 3' of each microsatellite. Substitution of flanking nucleotides surrounding the exon 10 microsatellite with those surrounding the exon 3 microsatellite greatly diminished heteroduplex (A(7)/T(8)) and full (A(7)/T(7)) mutation, while substitution of flanking nucleotides from exon 3 with those from exon 10 enhanced frameshift mutation. We hypothesized that specific individual nucleotide(s) within these flanking sequences control ACVR2 frameshift mutation rates. Only the 3rd nucleotide 5' of the microsatellite, and 3rd, 4th, and 5th nucleotides 3' of the microsatellite were altered from the native flanking sequences and these locations were individually altered (sites A, B, C, and D, respectively). Constructs were cloned +1bp out-of-frame of EGFP, allowing a -1bp frameshift to express EGFP. Plasmids were stably transfected into MMR-deficient cells. Non-fluorescent cells were sorted, cultured for 35 days, and harvested for flow cytometry and DNA-sequencing. Site A (C to T) and B (G to C) in ACVR2 exon 10 decreased both heteroduplex and full mutant as much as the construct containing all 4 alterations. For ACVR2 exon 3, site A (T to C), C (A to G), and D (G to C) are responsible for increased heteroduplex formation, whereas site D is responsible for full mutant formation by ACVR2 exon 10 flanking sequences. Exonic selectivity for frameshift mutation within ACVR2's sequence context is specifically controlled by individual nucleotides flanking each microsatellite.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 01/2012; 729(1-2):73-80. · 2.85 Impact Factor