Administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) to melanoma patients causes selective disruption of the tumor vasculature but the mechanism of this disruption is unknown. Here we report that exposure of human endothelial cells to TNF and IFN-gamma results in a reduced activation of integrin alphaVbeta3, an adhesion receptor that plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis, leading to a decreased alphaVbeta3-dependent endothelial cell adhesion and survival. Detachment and apoptosis of angiogenic endothelial cells was demonstrated in vivo in melanoma metastases of patients treated with TNF and IFN-gamma. These results implicate integrin alphaVbeta3 in the anti-vascular activity of TNF and IFN-gamma and demonstrate a new mechanism by which cytokines control cell adhesion.
"Evidence has been obtained to suggest that IFNγ produced by tumor-infiltrating macrophages plays a role in tumor blood vessel destruction . Combined treatment of endothelial cells with IFNγ and TNF results in synergistic cytotoxic effects, likely important for tumor vasculature destruction . In addition, IFNγ induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on many tumor cell types and activate natural killer cells and macrophages to kill a variety of tumor cell targets . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence suggests that the efficacy of cytokines in cancer therapy can be increased by targeting strategies based on conjugation with ligands that recognize receptors expressed by tumor cells or elements of the tumor microenvironment, including the tumor vasculature. The targeting approach is generally conceived to permit administration of low, yet pharmacologically active, doses of drugs, thereby avoiding toxic reactions. However, it is becoming clear that, in the case of cytokines, this strategy has another inherent advantage, i.e. the possibility of administering extremely low doses that do not activate systemic counter-regulatory mechanisms, which may limit their potential therapeutic effects. This review is focused on the use of tumor vasculature-homing peptides as vehicles for targeted delivery of cytokines to tumor blood vessel. In particular, we provide an overview of peptide-cytokine conjugates made with peptides containing the NGR, RGD, isoDGR or RGR sequences and describe, in more details, the biological and pharmacological properties of NGR-hTNF, a peptide-tumor necrosis factor-α conjugate that is currently being tested in phase II and III clinical studies. The results of preclinical and clinical studies performed with these products suggest that peptide-mediated vascular-targeting is indeed a viable strategy for delivering bioactive amounts of cytokines to tumor endothelial cells without causing the activation of counter-regulatory mechanisms and toxic reactions.
"The alterations in the tumors promoted by TNF-alpha also prompt tumoral vasculatur e to undergo erythrostasis, leukostasis, and intravascula r coagulation , which impair the afflux of nutrients and oxygen. This creates an environment that is more susceptibl e (low pH) to Mel activity, which leads to tumor hemorrh agic necrosis   . Apart from this suggested mechanism regarding the combination of TNF-alpha and Mel, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the alteration s promoted by these two molecules are not completely understood . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Cutaneous melanoma displays high morbidity and mortality rates. Isolated limb perfusion with melphalan (Mel) is used for the treatment of non-resectable, locally advanced extremity melanomas. When combined with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) treatment, the complete response varies between 70% and 90%. The mechanisms underlying the effects of Mel and TNF-alpha are not completely understood. We evaluated the impact of systemic Mel and TNF-alpha administration on tumor growth, analyzed the morphological changes promoted by each treatment, and identified early expressed genes in response to Mel and TNF-alpha treatment, either alone or in combination, in a murine melanoma model.
Six- to eight-week-old male mice were subcutaneously inoculated with B16F10 melanoma cells and then intravenously injected with TNF-alpha, melphalan or a combination of both drugs when the tumors reached 1.0 cm(2). Tumor growth was monitored every other day, and histological analysis was performed when the tumors reached 3.0 cm(2). Total RNA was extracted from the resected tumors and submitted to amplification, labeling and hybridization on an oligonucleotide microarray (Fox Chase Cancer Center). Tumor growth and histological parameters were compared using ANOVA. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Two-way ANOVA was used to identify differentially expressed genes among the various treatments, and Dunn's test was used for pair-wise comparisons.
Systemic administration of Mel impaired tumor growth (p<0.001), improved animal survival (p<0.001), and decreased mitotic rate (p=0.049). Treatment with TNF-alpha alone had no impact, neither on tumor growth, nor on survival, but it increased necrosis (p<0.024) and decreased mitotic rates (p=0.001) in the tumors. Combined treatment with Mel and TNF-alpha had similar effects in tumor growth, survival, necrosis and mitotic rate as observed with individual treatments. Moreover, 118 genes were found differentially expressed by microarray analysis and 10% of them were validated by RT- real time PCR. In our model we found that the treatments regulate genes that play important roles in tumorigenesis such as cell adhesion (Pard3, Pecam1, Ilk, and Dlg5), proliferation (Tcfe3 and Polr1e), cell motility (Kifap3, Palld, and Arhgef6), apoptosis (Bcl2l11), and angiogenesis (Flt1 and Ptprj).
Our data reproduces, in mice, some of the features observed in melanoma patients treated with the combination of Mel and TNF-alpha. The identification of genes with altered expression by these drugs both individually and in combination might help in the understanding of their mechanism of action and, as a consequence, improved strategies that could impact their clinical application.
"Indeed, radiological studies demonstrated the selective disappearance of tumour hypervascularized areas after treatment with TNF-α . Moreover, the tumour vascular disruption correlates in vivo with the induction of endothelial cell apoptosis  and in vitro with the specific suppression of αVβ3-mediated endothelial cell adhesion . More recently, it has been demonstrated that VE-cadherin is a target of TNF-α, leading to the alteration of vascular integrity and tumour viability . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolated limb perfusion with TNF-α and melphalan is used with remarkable efficiency to treat unresectable limb sarcomas. Here we tested the ability of TNF-α to directly induce apoptosis of sarcoma cells. In addition, we investigated the impact of p53 in the regulation of such effect.
We first analysed the ability of TNF-α to induce apoptosis in freshly isolated tumour cells. For this purpose, sarcoma tumours (n = 8) treated ex vivo with TNF-α were processed for TUNEL staining. It revealed substantial endothelial cell apoptosis and levels of tumour cell apoptosis that varied from low to high. In order to investigate the role of p53 in TNF-α-induced cell death, human sarcoma cell lines (n = 9) with different TP53 and MDM2 status were studied for their sensitivity to TNF-α. TP53(Wt) cell lines were sensitive to TNF-α unless MDM2 was over-expressed. However, TP53(Mut) and TP53(Null) cell lines were resistant. TP53 suppression in TP53(Wt) cell lines abrogated TNF-α sensitivity and TP53 overexpression in TP53(Null) cell lines restored it. The use of small molecules that restore p53 activity, such as CP-31398 or Nutlin-3a, in association with TNF-α, potentiated the cell death of respectively TP53(Mut) and TP53(Wt)/MDM2(Ampl). In particular, CP-31398 was able to induce p53 as well as some of its apoptotic target genes in TP53(Mut) cells. In TP53(Wt)/MDM2(Ampl) cells, Nutlin-3a effects were associated with a decrease of TNF-α-induced NF-κB-DNA binding and correlated with a differential regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes such as TP53BP2, GADD45, TGF-β1 and FAIM.
More effective therapeutic approaches are critically needed for the treatment of unresectable limb sarcomas. Our results show that restoring p53 activity in sarcoma cells correlated with increased sensitivity to TNF-α, suggesting that this strategy may be an important determinant of TNF-α-based sarcomas treatment.
PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e38808. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038808 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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