Evidence for the involvement of endothelial cell integrin alphaVbeta3 in the disruption of the tumor vasculature induced by TNF and IFN-gamma.
ABSTRACT Administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) to melanoma patients causes selective disruption of the tumor vasculature but the mechanism of this disruption is unknown. Here we report that exposure of human endothelial cells to TNF and IFN-gamma results in a reduced activation of integrin alphaVbeta3, an adhesion receptor that plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis, leading to a decreased alphaVbeta3-dependent endothelial cell adhesion and survival. Detachment and apoptosis of angiogenic endothelial cells was demonstrated in vivo in melanoma metastases of patients treated with TNF and IFN-gamma. These results implicate integrin alphaVbeta3 in the anti-vascular activity of TNF and IFN-gamma and demonstrate a new mechanism by which cytokines control cell adhesion.
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ABSTRACT: Members of the integrin family of adhesion receptors are essential participants in blood vessel growth and remodeling. It is not known which integrins are involved in the initial stages of angiogenesis in vivo. In this study we determined the location of integrins on the blood vessels of a growing tissue, the neonatal foreskin, in which neovascularization is likely to occur. We used the confocal microscope to visually reconstruct vessels from the papillary dermis of the foreskin and to identify potential sprouts as narrow, tapering extensions from these vessels. Blood vessels were initially identified by their positive reaction with antibodies to von Willebrand factor or human platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and their negative response to anti-neurofilament antibodies. Later, vessels were identified by their shape and location. We screened vessels with anti bodies to integrin subunits alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 5, alpha 6, alpha v, beta 1, beta 3 and beta 4. We found that integrin subunits alpha 6 and beta 4 were consistently found along the whole length of capillary loops and extended to the distal ends of presumed sprouts. The alpha 2 and alpha v integrin concentrations, which are normally low in the microvasculature, were increased on the sprouts. alpha 5 was either absent from vessels entirely or more concentrated on the body than on the sprout. alpha 1 was more commonly present on nerves than blood vessels. These studies suggest an important role for the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin in the initial stages of endothelial outmigration during new vessel growth.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 10/1994; 103(3):381-6. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis is a naturally occurring cell suicide pathway induced in a variety of cell types. In many cases, PCD is induced by the withdrawal of specific hormones or growth factors that function as survival factors. In this study, we have investigated the potential role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a cell survival factor. Our results indicate that in the absence of any ECM interactions, human endothelial cells rapidly undergo PCD, as determined by cell morphology, nuclei fragmentation, DNA degradation, protein cross-linking, and the expression of the PCD-specific gene TRPM-2. PCD was blocked by plating cells on an immobilized integrin beta 1 antibody but not by antibodies to either the class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA) or vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), suggesting that integrin-mediated signals were required for maintaining cell viability. Treatment of the cells in suspension with the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate also blocked PCD. When other cell types were examined, some, but not all, underwent rapid cell death when deprived of adhesion to the ECM. These results suggest that in addition to regulating cell growth and differentiation, the ECM also functions as a survival factor for many cell types.Molecular Biology of the Cell 10/1993; 4(9):953-61. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: JAK2, a member of the Janus kinase superfamily was found to interact functionally with Raf-1, a central component of the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. Interferon-gamma and several other cytokines that are known to activate JAK2 kinase were also found to stimulate Raf-1 kinase activity toward MEK-1 in mammalian cells. In the baculovirus coexpression system, Raf-1 was activated by JAK2 in the presence of p21ras. Under these conditions, a ternary complex of p21ras, JAK2, and Raf-1 was observed. In contrast, in the absence of p21ras, coexpression of JAK2 and Raf-1 resulted in an overall decrease in the Raf-1 kinase activity. In addition, JAK2 phosphorylated Raf-1 at sites different from those phosphorylated by pp60v-src. In mammalian cells treated with either erythropoietin or interferon-gamma, a small fraction of Raf-1 coimmunoprecipitated with JAK2 in lysates of cells in which JAK2 was activated as judged by its state of tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that JAK2 and p21ras cooperate to activate Raf-1.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1996; 93(21):11681-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor