Resolution of azole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis after initiation of potent combination antiretroviral therapy.
- AIDS 07/2002; 16(9):1303-4. · 6.41 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions. Extracellular proteolytic activity plays a central role in Candida pathogenicity and is produced by a family of 10 secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap proteins). Although the consequences of proteinase secretion during human infections is not precisely known, in vitro, animal, and human studies have implicated the proteinases in C. albicans virulence in one of the following seven ways: (i) correlation between Sap production in vitro and Candida virulence, (ii) degradation of human proteins and structural analysis in determining Sap substrate specificity, (iii) association of Sap production with other virulence processes of C. albicans, (iv) Sap protein production and Sap immune responses in animal and human infections, (v) SAP gene expression during Candida infections, (vi) modulation of C. albicans virulence by aspartyl proteinase inhibitors, and (vii) the use of SAP-disrupted mutants to analyze C. albicans virulence. Sap proteins fulfill a number of specialized functions during the infective process, which include the simple role of digesting molecules for nutrient acquisition, digesting or distorting host cell membranes to facilitate adhesion and tissue invasion, and digesting cells and molecules of the host immune system to avoid or resist antimicrobial attack by the host. We have critically discussed the data relevant to each of these seven criteria, with specific emphasis on how this proteinase family could contribute to Candida virulence and pathogenesis.Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10/2003; 67(3):400-28, table of contents. · 16.42 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In developing countries, the variations in the clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related oral lesions over time, and the possible effects of antiretroviral therapy, have not been described. In this study we evaluate the clinical spectrum of oral lesions in a series of HIV-infected patients when first examined at the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinic of a tertiary care institution in Mexico City, Mexico, and the changes observed over 12 years. All HIV-infected adult patients had an oral examination performed by specialists in oral pathology and medicine who used established clinical diagnostic criteria for oral lesions. Four periods were defined according to the evolving pattern of antiretroviral use: the first 2 were before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the last 2 were during more established use of HAART. For the statistical analysis the chi-square test for contingency tables and the chi-square test for trend were utilized. For dimensional variables, except age, the Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney rank sum tests were used when applicable and trend was tested with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Age was tested through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis. Alpha value was set at p = 0.05 for each test. In the 12-year study, 1,000 HIV-infected patients were included (87.9% male). At the baseline examination, oral lesions strongly associated with HIV were present in 47.1% of HIV-infected patients. Oral candidosis (31.6%), hairy leukoplakia (22.6%), erythematous candidosis (21.0%), and pseudomembranous candidosis (15.8%) were the most frequent lesions. Oral Kaposi sarcoma (2.3%), HIV-associated periodontal disease (1.7%), and oral non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.1%) were less frequent. HIV-related oral lesions decreased systematically-by half during the course of the 4 study periods (p < 0.001). Except for Kaposi sarcoma, all oral lesions strongly associated with HIV showed a trend to decrease significantly during the study period. No apparent variation in the occurrence of salivary gland disease or human papillomavirus-associated oral lesions was found. A significant trend to a lower prevalence was observed in the group of patients who were already taking antiretroviral therapy, non-HAART and HAART (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Only a discrete reduction, barely significant, was noted among untreated patients (p = 0.060). By Period IV (1999-2001), those who received HAART showed the lowest prevalence of oral lesions strongly associated with HIV (p < 0.001). Patients with oral lesions strongly associated with HIV had significantly lower median CD4+ counts and higher viral loads than those without oral lesions strongly associated with HIV (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). When CD4+ counts were correlated with prevalence of oral candidosis, a consistently negative association was found; this association prevailed even after the study group was partitioned according to period. In this selected cohort of 1,000 patients with HIV infection, the clinical spectrum of HIV-related oral lesions has changed over the 12-year study, with a decreased prevalence of most oral lesions. Our findings probably represent improvements in medical care of HIV-infected persons, earlier detection of HIV-infected patients at the AIDS clinic, the increasing use of prophylactic drugs to prevent secondary AIDS-related opportunistic infections, and, perhaps most important, the availability of potent antiretroviral therapy in recent years, since the introduction of HAART.Medicine 01/2003; 82(1):39-50. · 4.23 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.