Effects of ondansetron administration on opioid withdrawal syndrome observed in rats.
ABSTRACT This study tested whether a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist could reverse the signs of precipitated opioid withdrawal. Rats were treated with either saline or morphine for 4 days. After the four days, half of the rats in each group received naloxone and half received saline. Each animal also received one of four doses of ondansetron (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg i.p.). Administration of ondansetron to rats receiving naloxone after chronic morphine decreased the intensity of withdrawal signs such as increased defecation, jumping and wet-dog shakes, elevated the nociceptive threshold values which were decreased by precipitated withdrawal, but produced no change in urination, rectal temperature or salivation. The effects exhibited by ondansetron administration may be explained through interference of its 5-HT3 receptor antagonist activity with serotoninergic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these withdrawal symptoms. The use of this drug is thus suggested as a possible treatment of opioid withdrawal signs in heroin addicts.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we consider the problem of stabilizing in a desired configuration a mobile manipulator; only the arm's joint displacement information and the measures provided by the camera mounted on the end-effector are used to stabilize the system. In particular, no knowledge about the position and orientation of the mobile base is supposed to be available. An hybrid control algorithm, based on the concatenation of a sensor-based feedback control and an open-loop strategy, is proposed. A 3-DOF planar manipulator mounted on a mobile base, modelled as an unicycle, is considered as a case study, and simulation results are reported in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed control algorithm.Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2002. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on; 02/2002
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that induction of opiate antagonist-precipitated withdrawal under anesthesia can decrease the expression of later withdrawal signs. Three groups of morphine-dependent rats were compared in different experimental conditions of withdrawal precipitation using naloxone. We showed that anesthesia can temporarily overshadow the expression of withdrawal signs, but that some signs can be delayed and increased in intensity. This can be explained by a parallel and temporary effect of anesthesia on arousal and pain threshold. This carries important implications on the use of anesthesia in detoxification procedures.Life Sciences 11/2000; 67(23):2883-7. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of psychoactive drugs is a wide spread behaviour in human societies. The systematic use of a drug requires the establishment of different drug use-associated behaviours which need to be learned and controlled. However, controlled drug use may develop into compulsive drug use and addiction, a major psychiatric disorder with severe consequences for the individual and society. Here we review the role of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the establishment of drug use-associated behaviours on the one hand and the transition and maintenance of addiction on the other hand for the drugs: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), morphine/heroin, cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine. Results show a crucial, but distinct involvement of the 5-HT system in both processes with considerable overlap between psychostimulant and opioidergic drugs and alcohol. A new functional model suggests specific adaptations in the 5-HT system, which coincide with the establishment of controlled drug use-associated behaviours. These serotonergic adaptations render the nervous system susceptible to the transition to compulsive drug use behaviours and often overlap with genetic risk factors for addiction. Altogether we suggest a new trajectory by which serotonergic neuroadaptations induced by first drug exposure pave the way for the establishment of addiction.Behavioural brain research 04/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor