Reproductive factors and breast cancer in New Zealand.
ABSTRACT A national population-based case-control study was used to assess the influence on breast cancer risk of reproductive factors and the possibility of an interaction with age at diagnosis. A total of 891 women aged 25 to 54 with a first diagnosis of breast cancer, and 1864 control subjects, randomly selected from the electoral rolls, were interviewed. There was a declining risk of breast cancer with increasing age at menarche (p = 0.06), the strongest effect being seen in women aged less than 40. Parous women had a 27% lower risk of breast cancer than nulliparous women, a reduced risk being evident in all but the youngest age group. A falling risk of breast cancer with rising parity was clear only in women diagnosed when aged at least 45 years. Breast cancer risk tended to fall amongst parous women with increasing duration of breastfeeding (p = 0.14); the association was most apparent in the youngest women, while those over 40 years at diagnosis showed no clear negative trend. There was no association of breast cancer risk with age at first full-term pregnancy, time since last full-term pregnancy, abortion (spontaneous or induced), abortion before first full-term pregnancy, or ability to conceive, and there was no trend in risk with age at natural menopause. Women in the highest category of body mass index at age 20 had the lowest risk of breast cancer in the age group studied. When each reproductive factor was formally tested for effect modification by age at diagnosis, the interaction term in logistic models approached statistical significance only for parity (p = 0.07).
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ABSTRACT: Overweight, obesity, and breast cancer are three pathologies that are endemic in the world today and which have a great impact on society. Many research studies are currently trying to discover possible associations between these factors and to specify the links between them. Objective: To verify whether there is a direct connection between overweight/obesity in women with breast cancer and its relation to age of diagnosis. Materials and methods: The sample population in this study was composed of 118 women (32-76 years of age) who had been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer in 2009-2011 at the Centro Oncológico Estatal ISSEMyM [National Cancer Institute of Mexico]. An observational, descriptive, and transversal study was performed in which a random sample of n = 60 women was divided into two groups. The first group was composed of women with breast cancer, but who were of normal weight. The second group was composed of women with breast cancer, but who were either overweight or obese. In both groups, the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) was applied, and the BMI (weight and height) was determined as well as waist circumference. Results: A statistically significant relation was found between age of diagnosis and weight (normal/overweight/obese) of the subjects (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results obtained show that overweight and obesity are directly linked to breast cancer and age of diagnosis. Breast cancer was diagnosed earlier in women of normal weight.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 10/2012; 27(5):1643-1647. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Importance Understanding the major health problems in the United States and how they are changing over time is critical for informing national health policy. Objectives To measure the burden of diseases, injuries, and leading risk factors in the United States from 1990 to 2010 and to compare these measurements with those of the 34 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Design We used the systematic analysis of descriptive epidemiology of 291 diseases and injuries, 1160 sequelae of these diseases and injuries, and 67 risk factors or clusters of risk factors from 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries developed for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study to describe the health status of the United States and to compare US health outcomes with those of 34 OECD countries. Years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were computed by multiplying the number of deaths at each age by a reference life expectancy at that age. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were calculated by multiplying prevalence (based on systematic reviews) by the disability weight (based on population-based surveys) for each sequela; disability in this study refers to any short- or long-term loss of health. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. Deaths and DALYs related to risk factors were based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of exposure data and relative risks for risk-outcome pairs. Healthy life expectancy (HALE) was used to summarize overall population health, accounting for both length of life and levels of ill health experienced at different ages. Results US life expectancy for both sexes combined increased from 75.2 years in 1990 to 78.2 years in 2010; during the same period, HALE increased from 65.8 years to 68.1 years. The diseases and injuries with the largest number of YLLs in 2010 were ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and road injury. Age-standardized YLL rates increased for Alzheimer disease, drug use disorders, chronic kidney disease, kidney cancer, and falls. The diseases with the largest number of YLDs in 2010 were low back pain, major depressive disorder, other musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety disorders. As the US population has aged, YLDs have comprised a larger share of DALYs than have YLLs. The leading risk factors related to DALYs were dietary risks, tobacco smoking, high body mass index, high blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose, physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Among 34 OECD countries between 1990 and 2010, the US rank for the age-standardized death rate changed from 18th to 27th, for the age-standardized YLL rate from 23rd to 28th, for the age-standardized YLD rate from 5th to 6th, for life expectancy at birth from 20th to 27th, and for HALE from 14th to 26th. Conclusions and Relevance From 1990 to 2010, the United States made substantial progress in improving health. Life expectancy at birth and HALE increased, all-cause death rates at all ages decreased, and age-specific rates of years lived with disability remained stable. However, morbidity and chronic disability now account for nearly half of the US health burden, and improvements in population health in the United States have not kept pace with advances in population health in other wealthy nations. The United States spends the most per capita on health care across all countries,1- 2 lacks universal health coverage, and lags behind other high-income countries for life expectancy3 and many other health outcome measures.4 High costs with mediocre population health outcomes at the national level are compounded by marked disparities across communities, socioeconomic groups, and race and ethnicity groups.5- 6 Although overall life expectancy has slowly risen, the increase has been slower than for many other high-income countries.3 In addition, in some US counties, life expectancy has decreased in the past 2 decades, particularly for women.7- 8 Decades of health policy and legislative initiatives have been directed at these challenges; a recent example is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which is intended to address issues of access, efficiency, and quality of care and to bring greater emphasis to population health outcomes.9 There have also been calls for initiatives to address determinants of poor health outside the health sector including enhanced tobacco control initiatives,10- 12 the food supply,13- 15 physical environment,16- 17 and socioeconomic inequalities.18 With increasing focus on population health outcomes that can be achieved through better public health, multisectoral action, and medical care, it is critical to determine which diseases, injuries, and risk factors are related to the greatest losses of health and how these risk factors and health outcomes are changing over time. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) framework19 provides a coherent set of concepts, definitions, and methods to do this. The GBD uses multiple metrics to quantify the relationship of diseases, injuries, and risk factors with health outcomes, each providing different perspectives. Burden of disease studies using earlier variants of this approach have been published for the United States for 199620- 22 and for Los Angeles County, California.23 In addition, 12 major risk factors have also been compared for 2005.24 In this report, we use the GBD Study 2010 to identify the leading diseases, injuries, and risk factors associated with the burden of disease in the United States, to determine how these health burdens have changed over the last 2 decades, and to compare the United States with other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2013; · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate at what age parous and nonparous women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Factors taken into account for parous women were whether they had breastfed their children, and if so, the length of the lactation period. Other factors considered for both groups were obesity, family histories of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in younger women in Western countries. Its growing incidence as well as the increasingly early age of diagnosis led us to carefully analyse its possible causes and the preventive measures to be taken. This is a particularly important goal in epidemiological research. A retrospective study of the clinical histories of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain). In this study, we analysed 504 medical records of female patients, 19-91 years of age, who had been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer from 2004-2009 at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain). Relevant data (age of diagnosis, period of lactation, family history of cancer, obesity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits) were collected from the clinical histories of each patient and analysed. A conditional inference tree was used to relate the age of diagnosis to smoking habits and the length of the lactation period. The conditional inference tree identified significant differences between the age of the patients at breast cancer diagnosis, smoking habits (p < 0·001) and lactation period if the subjects had breastfed their children for more than six months (p = 0·006), regardless of whether they had a family history of cancer. Our study concluded that breastfeeding for over six months not only provides children with numerous health benefits, but also protects mothers from breast cancer when the mothers are nonsmokers. Nurses play a crucial role in encouraging new mothers to breastfeed their children, and this helps to prevent breast cancer.Journal of Clinical Nursing 08/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor