Lack of nucleotide variability in a beetle pest with extreme inbreeding.

Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
Insect Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 2.98). 05/1998; 7(2):197-200. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2583.1998.72064.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The coffee berry borer beetle Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the major insect pest of coffee and has spread to most of the coffee-growing countries of the world. This beetle also displays an unusual life cycle, with regular sibling mating. This regular inbreeding and the population bottlenecks occurring on colonization of new regions should lead to low levels of genetic diversity. We were therefore interested in determining the level of nucleotide variation in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of this beetle worldwide. Here we show that two nuclear loci (Resistance to dieldrin and ITS2) are completely invariant, whereas some variability is maintained at a mitochondrial locus (COI), probably corresponding to a higher mutation rate in the mitochondrial genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial data shows only two clades of beetle haplotypes outside of Kenya, the proposed origin of the species. These data confirm that inbreeding greatly reduces nucleotide variation and suggest the recent global spread of only two inbreeding lines of this bark beetle.

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    ABSTRACT: Keywords. Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, development genes, diapause genes, gene databases, genomics, insect resistance genes, phytophagy genes Abstract. Fifteen years after the publication of the first genomic sequence of a phytophagous beetle, we review here the wealth of genetic and genomic information generated so far for the species-rich beetle superfamilies Chrysomeloidea (longhorn, seed and leaf beetles) and Curculionoidea (weevils and bark beetles). In this review we briefly describe the most common methods used to investi- gate the beetle genomes and also compile the nucleotide sequence information stored in public gene databases until December 2004. The motivations and relevance of these research initiatives are described in certain detail, distinguishing among structural and popu- lation studies, phylogenetic research, the study of genes involved in development and diapause, energetic metabolism, vegetal tissue digestion, and genes for insect resistance and defence.
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    ABSTRACT: The resistant Rdl allele for dieldrin insecticide was detected on the Hypothenemus hampei populations from Colombia using conventional PCR methods. Based on this sequence, a melting temperature (Tm) shift genotyping method that relies on allele-specific PCR is described for insecticide resistance-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the H. hampeiRdl gene. The method reported here uses GC-rich tails of unequal length attached to allele-specific primers containing 3′ terminal bases that correspond to SNP allelic variants. Specific PCR products are identified by inspection of a melting curve on a real-time PCR thermocycler using SYBR Green DNA binding dye. Resistant and susceptible alleles resulted in specific PCR products with Tm of 83.3±0.1°C and 86.0±0.2°C, respectively. The RdlTm-shift genotyping method is a new method to identify the Rdl gene in the coffee berry borer H. hampei, the principal pest of coffee that in general show low genetic diversity and very few genetic strategies for control of this pest have been developed. The method supplies a high-throughput tool for dieldrin resistance-associated SNP diagnostic in the coffee berry borer which will be useful for resistance-management strategies and as genetic marker in the colombian insect populations for genetics research.
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    ABSTRACT: Inbreeding and parthenogenesis are especially frequent in colonizing species of plants and animals, and inbreeding in wood-boring species in the weevil families Scolytinae and Platypodidae is especially common on small islands. In order to study the relationship between colonization success, island attributes and mating system in these beetles, we analysed the relative proportions of inbreeders and outbreeders for 45 Pacific and Old World tropical islands plus two adjacent mainland sites, and scored islands for size, distance from nearest source popu- lation, and maximum altitude. 2 The numbers of wood-borer species decreased with decreasing island size, as expected; the degree of isolation and maximum island altitude had negligible effects on total species numbers. 3 Numbers of outbreeding species decreased more rapidly with island size than did those of inbreeders. Comparing species with similar eco- logy (e.g. ambrosia beetles) showed that this difference was best explained by differential suc- cess in colonization, rather than by differences in resource utilization or sampling biases. This con- clusion was further supported by analyses of data from small islands, which suggested that outbreed- ing species have a higher degree of endemism and that inbreeding species are generally more widespread. 4 Recently established small populations neces- sarily go through a period of severe inbreeding, which should affect inbreeding species much less than outbreeding ones. In addition, non-genetic ecological and behavioural ('Allee') effects are also expected to reduce the success of outbreeding colonists much more than that of inbreeders: com- pared with inbreeders, outbreeders are expected to have slower growth rates, have greater difficulties with mate-location and be vulnerable to random extinction over a longer period.
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 07/2001; 10(4):345-357. · 7.24 Impact Factor

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