In vitro antimycobacterial activity of 5-chloropyrazinamide.

Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.57). 02/1998; 42(2):462-3.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT 5-Chloropyrazinamide and 5-chloropyrazinoic acid were evaluated for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, and several nontuberculous mycobacteria by a broth dilution method. 5-Chloropyrazinamide was more active than pyrazinamide against all organisms tested. It is likely that this agent has a different mechanism of action than pyrazinamide.

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    ABSTRACT: The pyrazinamide (PZA) analog 5-chloropyrazinamide (5-Cl PZA) is active against mycobacterial species, including PZA-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In M. smegmatis, overexpression of the type 1 fatty acid synthase (FAS I) confers resistance to 5-Cl PZA, a potent FAS I inhibitor. Since M. tuberculosis and M. bovis cannot tolerate FAS I overexpression, 5-Cl PZA resistance mutations have yet to be described for tubercle bacilli. In an attempt to identify other factors that govern the activity of 5-Cl PZA, we selected for 5-Cl PZA-resistant isolates from a library of transposon-mutagenized M. smegmatis isolates. Here, we report that increased expression of the M. smegmatis pyrazinamidase PzaA confers resistance to 5-Cl PZA and susceptibility to PZA in M. smegmatis, M. tuberculosis, and M. bovis. In contrast, while ectopic overexpression of the M. tuberculosis pyrazinamidase PncA increases PZA susceptibility, this amidase does not mediate resistance to 5-Cl PZA. We conclude that PncA-independent turnover of 5-Cl PZA represents a potential mechanism of resistance to this compound for M. tuberculosis, which will likely translate into enhanced PZA susceptibility. Thus, countersusceptibility can be manipulated as a resistance-proofing strategy for PZA-based compounds when these agents are used simultaneously.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2010; 54(12):5323-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop new potential antimycobacterial drugs, a series of pyrazinamide derivatives was designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of selected mycobacterial strains (Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and two strains of Mycobacterium avium). This Letter is focused on binuclear pyrazinamide analogues containing the -CONH-CH2- bridge, namely on N-benzyl-5-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamides with various substituents on the phenyl ring and their comparison with some analogously substituted 5-chloro-N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides. Compounds from the N-benzyl series exerted lower antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv then corresponding anilides, however comparable with pyrazinamide (12.5-25μg/mL). Remarkably, 5-chloro-N-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (8, MIC=3.13μg/mL) and 5-chloro-N-(2-chlorobenzyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (1, MIC=6.25μg/mL) were active against M. kansasii, which is naturally unsusceptible to PZA. Basic structure-activity relationships are presented.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 04/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of pyrazinamide derivatives with alkylamino substitution was designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of selected mycobacterial, bacterial and fungal strains. The target structures were prepared from the corresponding 5-chloro (1) or 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamide (2) by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by various non-aromatic amines (alkylamines). To determine the influence of alkyl substitution, corresponding amino derivatives (1a, 2a) and compounds with phenylalkylamino substitution were prepared. Some of the compounds exerted antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv significantly better than standard pyrazinamide and corresponding starting compounds (1 and 2). Basic structure-activity relationships are presented. Only weak antibacterial and no antifungal activity was detected.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 01/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor

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