Sites of volatile anesthetic action on kainate (Glutamate receptor 6) receptors.
ABSTRACT Molecular mechanisms of anesthetic action on neurotransmitter receptors are poorly understood. The major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system is glutamate, and recent studies found that volatile anesthetics inhibit the function of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyisoxazolepropionic acid subtype of glutamate receptors (e.g. glutamate receptor 3 (GluR3)), but enhance kainate (GluR6) receptor function. We used this dissimilar pharmacology to identify sites of anesthetic action on the kainate GluR6 receptor by constructing chimeric GluR3/GluR6 receptors. Results with chimeric receptors implicated a transmembrane region (TM4) of GluR6 in the action of halothane. Site-directed mutagenesis subsequently showed that a specific amino acid, glycine 819 in TM4, is important for enhancement of receptor function by halothane (0. 2-2 mM). Mutations of Gly-819 also markedly decreased the response to isoflurane (0.2-2 mM), enflurane (0.2-2 mM), and 1-chloro-1,2, 2-trifluorocyclobutane (0.2-2 mM). The nonanesthetics 1, 2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane and 2,3-dichlorooctafluorobutane had no effect on the functions of either wild-type GluR6 or receptors mutated at Gly-819. Ethanol and pentobarbital inhibited the function of both wild-type and mutant receptors. These results suggest that a specific amino acid, Gly-819, is critical for the action of volatile anesthetics, but not of ethanol or pentobarbital, on the GluR6 receptor.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have emphasized the role of molecular polarizability and electric moments, especially dipole and quadrupole moments, in binding of drugs to sites of action. A recent publication of ED50s that prevent response to a noxious stimulus for eight fluorobenzenes has made it possible to compare anesthetic potency with ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of molecular polarizability as well as dipole and quadrupole moments. Fluorobenzenes provide a stringent test of the role of electric moments in anesthetic potency because individual dipole moments range from 0 to 2.84 debye (D) while the quadrupole moment of benzene is large and negative (-30 x 10(-40) C m(2)), that of hexafluorobenzene is large and positive (30 x 10(-40) C m(2)), and that of 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene is nearly zero. We found that anesthetic potency of fluorobenzenes was not affected by the presence of either dipole or quadrupole moments. This result is surprising because fluoroalkanes and fluorocycloalkanes are most potent when half fluorinated and are usually not anesthetics when perfluorinated. The results suggest that electrostatic interactions are not important for binding of fluorobenzenes at sites of anesthetic action and that these sites are different from those that bind conventional anesthetics.Biophysical Chemistry 08/1998; 73(1-2):7-11. DOI:10.1016/S0301-4622(98)00161-6 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current concepts of the mechanisms underlying many of the pharmacological effects of ethanol on the CNS involve disruption of ion channel function via the interaction of ethanol with specific hydrophobic sites on channel subunit proteins. Of particular clinical importance is the development of tolerance and dependence to ethanol, and it is likely that adaptive changes in synaptic function in response to ethanol's actions on ion channels play a role in this process. In this article, Judson Chandler, Adron Harris and Fulton Crews discuss potential mechanisms of ethanol-induced changes in synaptic function that might provide a cellular basis for ethanol tolerance and dependence. It is proposed that multiple mechanisms are involved that include both transcriptional and post-translational modifications in NMDA and GABAA receptors.Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 01/1999; 19(12):491-5. DOI:10.1016/S0165-6147(98)01268-1 · 9.99 Impact Factor
- Anaesthesia 01/1999; 53(12):1234. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2044.1998.0716l.x · 3.85 Impact Factor