Optimal conditions of immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay for p24 antigen of HIV-1.
ABSTRACT In the immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay for HIV-1 p24 antigen, different preparations of anti-p24 Fab'-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate, various periods of time for immunoreactions involved, and shaking for incubations with polystyrene beads were tested. On the basis of the results of these experiments, p24 antigen was measured as follows. The antigen was reacted simultaneously with 2,4-dinitrophenyl-biotinyl-bovine serum albumin-affinity-purified rabbit anti-p24 Fab' conjugate and highly polymerized monoclonal mouse anti-p24 Fab'-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate at 37 degrees C for 2 hr. The immune complex formed comprising the three components was trapped onto colored polystyrene beads coated with affinity-purified (anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl group) IgG for 1.5 hr and was transferred to white polystyrene beads coated with streptavidin in the presence of epsilon N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-L-lysine for 1.5 hr. The incubations with polystyrene beads were performed at room temperature with shaking. beta-D-Galactosidase activity bound to the white polystyrene beads was assayed by fluorometry at 30 degrees C for 2 hr. The detection limit of p24 antigen (0.1 amol/tube and 10 amol (0.24 pg)/ml of serum) was equal to that obtained when the formation, trapping, and transferring of the immune complex were performed for 4, 16, and 3 hr, respectively, by incubation without shaking. Namely, the period of time required for the immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay of p24 antigen was markedly shortened (25.5-7 hr) without loss of the sensitivity. By the improved immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay, p24 antigen was detected 12-20 days earlier than the detection of antibodies to HIV-1, i.e., seroconversion by the conventional ELISA.
Article: Earlier detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen and immunoglobulin G and M antibodies to p17 antigen in seroconversion serum panels by immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassays.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For earlier diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the sensitivities of immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassays for HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibody immunoglobulin G (IgG) to HIV-1 p17 antigen were improved approximately 25- and 90-fold, respectively, over those of the previous immunoassays by performing solid-phase immunoreactions with shaking and increasing the serum sample volumes, and immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay of antibody IgM to p17 antigen was also performed in the same way as the improved immunoassay of antibody IgG to p17 antigen. By the improved immunoassays, p24 antigen and antibody IgG to p17 antigen were detected earlier in 32 and 53%, respectively, of the HIV-1 seroconversion serum panels tested than before the improvements, and p24 antigen was detected as early as or earlier than HIV-1 RNA by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) in all of the panels tested. In 4 panels out of 19 tested, antibody IgG to p17 antigen or both antibodies IgG and IgM to p17 antigen were detected earlier than p24 antigen and RNA, although the antibody levels declined slightly before their steep increases usually observed after p24 antigen and RNA. Thus, the window period in diagnosis of HIV-1 infection can be shortened by detection of p24 antigen with the improved immunoassay as much as by detection of RNA with RT-PCR and, in some cases, more by detection of antibodies IgG and IgM to p17 antigen with the improved immunoassays than by detections of p24 antigen with the improved immunoassay and RNA with RT-PCR.Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 12/2000; 7(6):872-81. · 2.51 Impact Factor