We retrospectively studied whether ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) showed improved sensitivity in patients with palpable thyroid nodules.
A total of 70 patients (72 lesions) with thyroid nodules underwent US-FNAB and 94 patients (94 lesions) underwent FNAB guided by manual palpation (standard FNAB). The diagnoses obtained by US-FNAB were compared with the surgical findings.
The sensitivity of US-FNAB for palpable thyroid nodules was 62% the specificity was 74% the accuracy was 68% the positive predictive value was 100%, the negative predictive value was 70% and the inadequate biopsy rate was 17%. In contrast, the sensitivity of standard FNAB was 45%, the specificity was 51%, the accuracy was 48% the positive predictive value was 96, the negative predictive value was 55, and the inadequate biopsy rate was 30%. The accuracy of US-FNAB was significantly higher than that of standard FNAB. For tumors < or = 2 cm in diameter, the sensitivity and accuracy of US-FNAB were both significantly higher than those of standard FNAB.
These findings suggest that US-FNAB can improve the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer, especially in patients with tumors < or = 2 cm in diameter.
"When the inadequate biopsy rate is low, like the studies of Danese et al. , Izquierdo et al.  and Khalid et al. , USG-FNA is not cost-effective over P-FNA and ICER, the extra cost to achieve one more accurate diagnosis is over €250 (table 5). In other studies with higher inadequate rates [4,5], ICER ranged between €58 and €90 (table 5). If the use of harmonic scalpel becomes a standard in thyroid surgery , the cost of thyroid surgery will increase. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to perform a cost-effectiveness comparison between palpation-guided thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies (P-FNA) and ultrasound-guided thyroid FNA biopsies (USG-FNA).
Each nodule was considered as a case. Diagnostic steps were history and physical examination, TSH measurement, Tc99m thyroid scintigraphy for nodules with a low TSH level, initial P-FNA versus initial USG-FNA, repeat USG-FNA for nodules with initial inadequate P-FNA or USG-FNA, hemithyroidectomy for inadequate repeat USG-FNA. American Thyroid Association thyroid nodule management guidelines were simulated in estimating the cost of P-FNA strategy. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists guidelines were simulated for USG-FNA strategy. Total costs were estimated by adding the cost of each diagnostic step to reach a diagnosis for 100 nodules. Strategy cost was found by dividing the total cost to 100. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated by dividing the difference between strategy cost of USG-FNA and P-FNA to the difference between accuracy of USG-FNA and P-FNA. A positive ICER indicates more and a negative ICER indicates less expense to achieve one more additional accurate diagnosis of thyroid cancer for USG-FNA.
Seventy-eight P-FNAs and 190 USG-FNAs were performed between April 2003 and May 2008. There were no differences in age, gender, thyroid function, frequency of multinodular goiter, nodule location and diameter (median nodule diameter: 18.4 mm in P-FNA and 17.0 mm in USG-FNA) between groups. Cytology results in P-FNA versus USG-FNA groups were as follows: benign 49% versus 62% (p = 0.04), inadequate 42% versus 29% (p = 0.03), malignant 3% (p = 1.00) and indeterminate 6% (p = 0.78) for both. Eleven nodules from P-FNA and 18 from USG-FNA group underwent surgery. The accuracy of P-FNA was 0.64 and USG-FNA 0.72. Unit cost of P-FNA was 148 Euros and USG-FNA 226 Euros. The cost of P-FNA strategy was 534 Euros and USG-FNA strategy 523 Euros. Strategy cost includes the expense of repeat USG-FNA for initial inadequate FNAs and surgery for repeat inadequate USG-FNAs. ICER was -138 Euros.
Universal application of USG-FNA for all thyroid nodules is cost-effective and saves 138 Euros per additional accurate diagnosis of benign versus malignant thyroid nodular disease.
"It is reported that 9 to 47% of palpation-guided and 4 to 21% of ultrasound-guided FNA smears are inadequate [6-13]. Hatada and coworkers reported that for nodules less than 2 cm in diameter, the sensitivity and accuracy of USG-guided FNA biopsies are significantly better than manual FNA . Mehrotra and coworkers reported an unsatisfactory specimen rate of 46.8% for palpation-guided FNAs and 15.6% for USG-guided core-cutting needle aspirations . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the results of palpation-versus ultrasound-guided thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies.
Clinical data, cytology and histopathology results were retrospectively analyzed on all patients who underwent thyroid FNA biopsy in our outpatient endocrinology clinic between January 1998 and April 2003. The same investigators performed all thyroid FNAs (ASC) and cytological evaluations (KP). Subjects in the ultrasound-guided group were older, otherwise there were no differences in baseline characteristics (gender, thyroid function, the frequency of multinodular goiter, nodule diameter and nodule location) between groups. Cytology results in nodules aspirated by palpation (n = 202) versus ultrasound guidance (n = 184) were as follows: malignant 2.0% versus 2.7% (p = 0.74), benign 69.8% versus 79.9% (p = 0.02), indeterminate 1.0% versus 4.9% (p = 0.02), inadequate 27.2% versus 12.5% (p < 0.01). Malignant results were compared with Fisher's exact test. Other cytology categories were compared with chi-square test. Eighteen patients from the palpation- and 23 from ultrasound-guided group underwent surgery. In the palpation-guided group, the sensitivity of FNA was 100%, specificity 94%, positive predictive value 67% and negative predictive value 100%. In the ultrasound-guided group, the sensitivity of FNA was 100%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 73% and negative predictive value 100%.
We demonstrate that ultrasound guidance for thyroid FNA significantly decreases inadequate for evaluation category. We also confirm the high sensitivity and specificity of thyroid FNA biopsy in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Where available, we recommend universal application of ultrasound guidance for thyroid FNA biopsy as a standard component of this diagnostic technique.
BMC Research Notes 05/2008; 1(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-1-12
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