The paralimbal approach with deferred conjunctival closure for adjustable strabismus surgery.
ABSTRACT Interest in the adjustable suture technique was renewed in the mid-1970s. The authors report a new modification of the fornix and limbal conjunctival approaches that combines the advantages of both. A paralimbal conjunctival incision is placed halfway between the limbus and the muscle insertion and directed parallel to the muscle insertion. This approach permits easy access to the rectus muscle. After the adjustable suture is temporarily secured with a bow-tie knot, the conjunctiva is partially closed using a loop suture over the muscle suture. An optional modification is the use of a "sweep suture" to break early adhesions at the time of adjustment. The adjustment procedure is performed at least 6 hours after the surgery. The conjunctiva is retracted as necessary for access to the muscle suture. If a sweep suture is used, this is first withdrawn before attempting any adjustment. After adjustment, the conjunctival loop suture is closed, covering the muscle suture. The sweep suture serves as a safeguard for what may otherwise be a difficult adjustment. This approach increases patient comfort after the surgery.
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ABSTRACT: To study if minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) is suitable for rectus muscle reoperations. The study presents a series of consecutive patients operated on by the same surgeon at Kantonsspital St Gallen, Switzerland with a novel MISS rectus muscle reoperation technique. Surgery is done by applying two small radial cuts along the muscle insertion. Through the tunnel obtained after muscle separation from surrounding tissue, a recession, advancement or plication is performed. In 62 eyes of 51 patients (age 35.4 (SD 16.3) years) a total of 86 horizontal rectus muscles were reoperated. On the average, the patients had 2.1 strabismus surgeries previously. Preoperative logMAR visual acuity was 0.38 (0.82) compared with 0.37 (0.83) at 6 months (p>0.1). On the first postoperative day, in the primary gaze position conjunctival and lid swelling and redness was hardly visible in 11 eyes, discrete in 15 eyes, moderate in 11 eyes and severe in 15 eyes. One corneal dellen and one corneal erosion occurred, which both quickly resolved. The preoperative deviation at distance for esodeviations (n = 15) of 12.5 (8.5) degrees decreased to 2.6 (7.8) degrees at 6 months (p<0.001). For near, a decrease from 12.0 (10.1) degrees to 2.9 (1.6) degrees was observed (p<0.001). The preoperative deviation at distance for exodeviations (n = 35) of -16.4 (8.5) degrees decreased to -7.9 (6.5) degrees at 6 months (p<0.005). For near, a decrease from -16.5 (11.4) degrees to -2.9 (1.5) degrees was observed (p<0.005). Within the first 6 months, only one patient had a reoperation. At month 6, in four patients a reoperation was planned or suggested by us because of unsatisfactory alignment. No patient experienced persistent diplopia or necessitated a reoperation because of double vision. Stereovision improved at month 6 compared with preoperatively (p<0.01). The study demonstrates that a small-cut, minimal dissection technique allows to perform rectus muscle reoperations. The MISS technique seems to reduce conjunctival and lid swelling in the direct postoperative period.The British journal of ophthalmology 10/2008; 92(12):1648-52. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To present a novel, minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) technique for rectus muscle operations. In this prospective study with a non-concurrent, retrospective comparison group, the first 20 consecutive patients treated with MISS were matched by age, diagnosis and muscles operated on, with 20 patients with a limbal opening operated on by the same surgeon at Kantonsspital, St Gallen, Switzerland. A total of 39 muscles were operated on. MISS is performed by applying two small radial cuts along the superior and inferior muscle margin. After muscle separation from surrounding tissue, a recession or plication is performed through the resulting tunnel. Alignment, binocular single vision, variations in vision, refraction, and number and types of complications during the first 6 postoperative months were registered. Visual acuity decreased at postoperative day 1 in both groups. The decrease was less pronounced in the group operated on with MISS (difference of decrease 0.14 logMAR, p<0.001). An abnormal lid swelling at day 1 was more frequent in the control group (21%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9% to 41%, 5/24 v 0%, 95% CI 0 to 13%, 0/25, p<0.05). No significant difference was found for final alignment, binocular single vision, other visual acuities, refractive changes or complications (allergic reactions, dellen formation, abnormal conjuctival findings). A conversion to a limbal opening was necessary in 5% (95% CI 2% to 17%, 2/39) of muscles. This study shows that this new, small-incision, minimal dissection technique is feasible. The MISS technique seems to be superior in the direct postoperative period as better visual acuities and less lid swelling were observed. Long-term results did not differ in the two groups.British Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2007; 91(1):76-82. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To present a novel, minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) technique for rectus muscle posterior fixation. This study reports the results of 32 consecutive MISS rectus muscle posterior fixation surgeries performed on 19 patients by applying only two small L-shaped openings where the two retroequatorial scleromuscular sutures were placed. On the first postoperative day, in primary position, redness was hardly visible in 16 eyes (50%) and only moderate redness was visible in 6 eyes (19%). No serious complication occurred. Preoperative visual acuity and refraction remained unchanged at 6 months (p > 0.1). The preoperative convergence excess (n = 13) decreased from 10.3 +/- 4.1 to 5.2 +/- 4.0 degrees at 6 months (p < 0.005). In all patients operated on for gaze incomitance (n = 6) improvement was achieved at 6 months. This study shows that keyhole minimal-dissection rectus muscle posterior fixation surgery is feasible and effective to improve ocular alignment. The MISS technique seems to be superior in the direct postoperative period since only minimal conjunctival swelling and no corneal complications were observed.Ophthalmologica 01/2009; 223(2):111-5. · 1.41 Impact Factor