Pharmacokinetic interaction between butorphanol nasal spray and oral metoclopramide in healthy women.
ABSTRACT The pharmacokinetics of butorphanol nasal spray, with and without the coadministration of metoclopramide, were studied in 24 healthy women. In this crossover study all volunteers received 3 treatments: a single, 1-mg dose of butorphanol nasal spray, a single, 10-mg oral dose of metoclopramide, and a combination of a single, 1-mg dose of butorphanol nasal spray and a single, 10-mg oral dose of metoclopramide. There was at least a one-week washout period between sessions. Serial blood samples were collected and plasma samples analyzed using a validated radioimmunoassay to determine the concentration of butorphanol, or a high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet procedure was used to determine the concentration of metoclopramide. There were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters, Cmax, tmax, AUC, and t1/2, for butorphanol with or without metoclopramide. Similarly, except for a delay in tmax of metoclopramide with coadministration of butorphanol, the pharmacokinetic parameters of metoclopramide were not significantly different between two treatments. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of both butorphanol and metoclopramide were not significantly altered when administered in combination. The incidence of nausea/vomiting after butorphanol administration was substantially reduced by coadministration of metoclopramide. Based on the pharmacokinetic and safety results, it can be concluded that butorphanol nasal spray and metoclopramide can be administered in combination without altering the dose regimen of either drug.
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ABSTRACT: Nasal administration of opioids may be an alternative route to intravenous, subcutaneous, oral transmucosal, oral or rectal administration in some patients. Key features may be self-administration, combined with rapid onset of action. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the present base of knowledge on this topic. The review is based on human studies found in Medline or in the reference list of these papers. The physiology of the nasal mucosa and some pharmaceutical aspects of nasal administration are described. The design of each study is described, but not systematically evaluated. Pharmacokinetic studies in volunteers are reported for fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, butorphanol, oxycodone and buprenorphine. Mean times for achieving maximum serum concentrations vary from 5 to 50 min, while mean figures for bioavailability vary from 46 to 71%. Fentanyl, pethidine and butorphanol have been studied for postoperative pain. Mean onset times vary from 12 to 22 min and times to peak effect from 24 to 60 min. There is considerable interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics and clinical outcome. This may partly be due to lack of optimization of nasal formulations. Patient-controlled nasal analgesia is an effective alternative to intravenous PCA. Adverse effects are mainly those related to the opioids themselves, rather than to nasal administration. Some experience with nasal opioids in outpatients and for chronic pain has also been reported. Nasal administration of opioids has promising features, but is still in its infancy. Adequately designed clinical studies are needed. Improvements of nasal sprayer devices and opioid formulations may improve clinical outcome.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 09/2002; 46(7):759-70. · 2.19 Impact Factor