Article

The psychological significance of human startle eyeblink modification: a review.

University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Occupational Therapy Edu., Kansas City 66160-7602, USA,
Biological Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.47). 01/1998; 47(1):1-43. DOI: 10.1016/S0301-0511(97)00020-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The human startle eyeblink reflex is reliably modified by both cognitive and emotional processes. This review provides a comprehensive survey of the current literature on human startle modification and its psychological significance. Issues raised for short lead interval startle inhibition include its interpretation as a measure of protection of processing, sensorimotor gating and early attentional processing. For long lead interval effects, interpretations related to attentional and emotional processing are discussed. Also reviewed are clinical applications to information processing dysfunctions in the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and to emotional processing disorders. Finally, an integrative summary that incorporates most of the cognitive findings is presented and directions for future research are identified regarding both cognitive and emotional modification of startle.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Michael E Dawson, Jun 29, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
182 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A strong link between body perception and emotional experience has been proposed. To examine the interaction between body perception and anticipatory anxiety, two well-established paradigms were combined: The rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the threat-of-shock paradigm. An artificial hand and the participants' own hand (hidden from sight) were touched synchronously or asynchronously, while either threat-of-shock or safety was cued. Potentiated startle reflexes and enhanced skin conductance responses were observed during threat as compared to safety conditions, but threat conditions did not interact with illusory body perceptions. Thus, defense system activation was not modulated by altered body representations. Physiological responses increased with the sense of ownership for the artificial limb, but not with proprioceptive drift towards its location. The results indicate that ownership ratings and proprioceptive drift capture different aspects of the RHI. The study presents a new approach to investigate the relationship between body representations and emotional states. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biological Psychology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.04.011 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The startle response, a set of reflex behaviours intended to prepare the organism to face a potentially threatening stimulus, can be modulated by several factors as, for example, changes in affective state, or previous presentation of a weak stimulus (a phenomenon termed Pre-Pulse Inhibition [PPI]). In this paper we analyse whether the induction of positive or negative affective states in the participants modulates the startle response and the PPI phenomenon. The results revealed a decrease of the startle response and an increase of the PPI effect when registered while the participants were exposed to pleasant images (Experiment 1), and an increase of the startle response and of the PPI effect when they were exposed to a video-clip of unpleasant content (Experiment 2). These data are interpreted considering that changes in affective states correlates with changes in the startle reflex intensity, but changes in PPI might be the result of an attentional process.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 02/2014; 91:73-79. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.10.017 · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the relationship of individual differences in personality with habituation in the acoustic startle response (ASR). Data from nine trials in ASR to white noise bursts and a personality questionnaire based in the alternative big-five personality approach were modelled with a latent growth curve (LCM) including an intercept and slope habituation growth factors. There was a negative correlation between the intercept and slope, indicating that individuals with higher initial ASR levels had also a more pronounced and faster decrease in the ASR. Contrary to expectations, extraversion and sensation seeking did not relate with habituation in ASR. Neuroticism and Aggressiveness related asymmetrically with the habituation rate in ASR. Higher levels of Neuroticism were related with faster habituation, whereas higher levels of Aggressiveness were related with slower habituation. Further studies with the LCM should be undertaken to clarify in a greater extent the association of personality with habituation in ASR.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 01/2014; 91(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.01.001 · 2.65 Impact Factor