The authors sought to define the latent factors associated with childhood anxiety and depression, using a structural equations/confirmatory factor-analytic approach involving multiple informants (i.e., parent and child report) of symptoms. A sample of 216 children and adolescents with diagnoses of an anxiety disorder or comorbid anxiety and mood disorders and their parents were administered measures of childhood fear, anxiety, and depression. Results of comparative modeling best supported 3-factor solutions (fear, anxiety, and depression) that were consistent with recent conceptual models of anxiety and depression (e.g., tripartite model). Results also suggested that 3 widely used measures of childhood negative emotion are conceptually heterogeneous (containing item sets that loaded on different latent factors). Implications for the assessment of childhood negative emotions are discussed.
"The factor structure of the scale was invariant across sex and time. These findings support previous research that has shown that the meaning of items measuring depression and anxiety is similar across age
[28,29,56,57]. Furthermore, the findings of invariance indicate that meaningful and interpretable comparisons of mean scores can be made when using the DSS in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood.
Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents.
The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided complete data or had minimal missing data over follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that an intercorrelated three-factor model with somatic, depressive, and anxiety factors provided the best fit. Further, this model was invariant across sex and time. Finally, DSS scores at Time 3 correlated significantly with depressive and anxiety symptoms measured at Time 4.
Results suggest that the DSS is multidimensional and that it is a suitable instrument to examine sex differences in somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, as well as changes in these symptoms over time in adolescents. In addition, it could be used to identify individuals at-risk of psychopathology during early adulthood.
"This indicates that the fi t of the hierarchical model to the data is not only due to the fact that it is less constrained. The excellent fi t of the original three-factor model of Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) is in line with the fi ndings of studies evaluating the factorial validity of the DASS-21 in adults (Antony et al., 1998; Brown et al., 1997; Clara et al., 2001; Crawford & Henry, 2003; Henry & Crawford, 2005), whereas the excellent fi t of the hierarchical model is in line with the results of studies evaluating the tripartite model of negative emotionality in adolescents (Chorpita et al., 1998; Joiner et al., 1996; Lambert et al., 2004). Although the original three-factor model of Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) shows an excellent fi t to the data of our sample, the correlations between the latent variables of this model are very high. "
"), suggesting that it not only assesses symptoms specific to depression but also that it is less influenced by day-to-day fluctuations in mood than the CDI. Moreover, recent reports have suggested that the CDI assesses general negative affectivity (common to both anxiety and depression) rather than specific depressive symptomatology (e.g., Chorpita et al. 1998; Stark and Laurent 2001). To maximize the likelihood that any relationship observed between the constructs of catastrophizing and depression was indeed reflective of an association between catastrophizing and depression (and not negative affectivity), we chose to employ the CES-DC. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the predictive relationship between catastrophizing and depressive symptoms, when controlling for anxiety, amongst 231 third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children. Hopelessness theory of depression posits that the diathesis of consistently generating catastrophic inferences to the consequences of a negative event can lead to hopelessness depression. Catastrophizing is often observed in anxiety, yet no prior study has controlled for anxiety when studying this cognitive risk factor for depression in the context of hopelessness theory. Results replicated previous findings amongst youth aged 7–13, such that a significant relationship was observed between depressive symptoms and catastrophizing; this relationship remained significant in the full sample after controlling for anxiety. However, the relationship between catastrophizing and depression differed by grade such that, after controlling for anxiety, catastrophizing was predictive of depressive symptoms amongst third-grade but not fifth- or seventh-grade children. The inclusion of the anxiety construct in hopelessness theory may enhance current conceptualizations of the changing nature of depression across development.
Cognitive Therapy and Research 08/2011; 36(4). DOI:10.1007/s10608-011-9370-2 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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