Epidemiology of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT To review the association between combined oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease, with emphasis on oral contraceptives containing low doses of estrogen (low-dose oral contraceptives).
A systematic search of the MEDLINE database was done for all relevant articles published between 1967 (when low-dose oral contraceptives were introduced in the United States) and June 1997. Textbooks, meeting proceedings, and reference lists were also searched.
All English-language human epidemiology studies of oral contraceptives that used cardiovascular disease as an end point were reviewed. Animal and metabolic studies were reviewed only if they were especially relevant to the mechanism of action of oral contraceptives.
Descriptive and analytic data from each study were collected.
Data were organized by cardiovascular end point, study design, estrogen dose, and type of progestogen. Data on relative and absolute risk are presented to address current prescription guidelines.
The risk for cardiovascular disease is lower with current preparations of oral contraceptives, including those that contain the new progestogens, than with older oral contraceptives containing high doses of estrogen. Among users of low-dose oral contraceptives, cardiovascular diseases occur mainly in smokers and women with predisposing factors. Every effort should be made to encourage smoking cessation among potential users of oral contraceptives.
SourceAvailable from: Uchenna NwaghaVolume 3 issue 2 edited by Uchenna nwagha, 07/2014; Medknow-Wolters Kluwer Health.
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ABSTRACT: We study the relation between menstrual irregularity and continuation rates from women who use oral contraceptive pill and those with subdermal progesterone implant. We made a retrospective comparative study, in private medical practice, of 117 women who are users of oral contraceptives with 30 μg of ethinyl estradiol (EE; Group A, n=64) and 20 μg EE (Group B, n=37), and those with etonogestrel subdermal implant (Group C, n=16). We studied age, time of use, type and duration of menstrual irregularities and continuation rates. One-way analysis of variance and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. There were no statistical differences between the groups related with age and time of use in months. We found a significantly statistical differences when we compared the menstrual irregularities in Group A (n=5), Group B (n=6), related with Group C (n=14) (pInternational Congress Series 09/2004; 1271:311-314. DOI:10.1016/j.ics.2004.05.127
Article: Contraceptive use in acne[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of the pilosebaceous follicle. It is well established that androgen hormones play a major role in sebum production and excretion, and are vital in the pathogenesis of acne. Isotretinoin notwithstanding, hormonal therapies such as combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and spironolactone are the only treatments that can affect sebum production and the androgen component of acne. Contraceptives are also used during isotretinoin therapy for pregnancy prevention. It is important for a dermatologist to be familiar with all the available methods of contraception to provide essential counseling to patients. The aim of this paper is to review the role of hormones in acne pathogenesis, discuss the use of hormonal therapies for acne, and detail various alternative contraceptive methods in relation to isotretinoin treatment and pregnancy prevention.Clinics in Dermatology 08/2014; 32(4):502–515. DOI:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2014.05.002 · 1.93 Impact Factor