Cadmium toxicity in growing swine

Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 07/1973; 103(7):964-72.
Source: PubMed


Cadmium (Cd) as cadmium chloride was added to the basal diet of 8-week-old swine at levels of 0, 50, 150, 450 and 1350 ppm for a 6-week comparison period. Growth rate was decreased as a function of Cd level, having ceased in the 1350 ppm group. Hematocrit values were the most sensitive measurement of toxicity and were decreased in all Cd-fed animals. Serum phosphorus was decreased in animals receiving 450 and 1350 ppm Cd, while serum calcium was not affected by Cd intake. Bone ash content was decreased as a function of Cd intake. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity was depressed in renal cortex from the groups receiving 150 ppm Cd or more, but serum LAP was unaffected by Cd intake. The kidney, liver, spleen and teeth contained the highest concentrations of Cd. Kidney Cd increased with dietary Cd level but appeared to reach a near maximal level in the 450 and 1350 ppm Cd groups. This renal Cd content was directly related to the level of cadmium-binding protein isolated from kidney cortex by gel filtration chromatography. 30 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

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    • "There is a report that MT subsists in a very low density under normal circumstances, but the MT amount grows when the synthesis is promoted by metals like Cd or Pb in organs such as liver (Nordberg & Nordberg, 1987). MT can be synthesized anywhere inside the body but mostly in the liver and kidney, and can be combined with Cd, which prevents free reactive Cd from making to the body which makes toxic materials (Cousins et al., 1973). The half-life of MT differs to the metal it combines with, but is rather short from 1 to 4 days, so the MT must be combined endlessly to counteract poison made by Cd or heavy metals (Revis & Osborne, 1984). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal and urinary Cd excretions were remarkably increased in Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Thus, cadmium retention ratio and absorption rate were decreased in the Cd exposed chlorella groups. Urinary and serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance were not changed in experimental animals. In addition, metallothionein (MT) synthesis in tissues was increased by Cd administration. The Cd-exposed chlorella groups indicated lower MT concentration compared to the Cd-exposed groups. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not changed by dietary chlorella and Cd administration. According to the results above, this study could suggest that Cd toxicity can be alleviated by increasing Cd excretion through feces. Therefore, when exposed to Cd, chlorella is an appropriate source which counteracts heavy metal poisoning, to decrease the damage of tissues by decreasing cadmium absorption.
    Nutrition research and practice 03/2009; 3(1):15-22. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2009.3.1.15 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    • "Pulmonary absorption of Cd is relatively more efficient than the absorption of Cd along the gastrointestinal tract. It has been shown that the efficiency of gastrointestinal absorption of Cd is only about 1–2% in mice and rats (Decker et al., 1958; Ragan 1977), 0.5–3% in monkeys (Nordberg et al., 1971), 2% in goats (Miller et al., 1969), and 5% in pigs and lambs (Cousins et al., 1973; Doyle et al., 1974). Among most species of mammals studied, the efficiency of gastrointestinal absorption of Cd appears to be greatest (nearly 16%) in cattle (Miller et al., 1969). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial and environmental pollutant that affects adversely a number of organs in humans and other mammals, including the kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, testis, and placenta. The liver and kidneys, which are the primary organs involved in the elimination of systemic Cd, are especially sensitive to the toxic effects of Cd. Because Cd ions possess a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and thiolate anions, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the handling and toxicity of Cd in target organs can be defined largely by the molecular interactions that occur between Cd ions and various sulfhydryl-containing molecules that are present in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments. A great deal of scientific data have been collected over the years to better define the toxic effects of Cd in the primary target organs. Notwithstanding all of the new developments made and information gathered, it is surprising that very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the uptake, retention, and elimination of Cd in target epithelial cells. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review is to summarize and put into perspective some of the more salient current findings, assertions, and hypotheses pertaining to the transport and handling of Cd in the epithelial cells of target organs. Particular attention has been placed on the molecular mechanisms involved in the absorption, retention, and secretion of Cd in small intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and tubular epithelial cells lining both proximal and distal portions of the nephron. The purpose of this review is not only to provide a summary of published findings but also to provide speculations and testable hypotheses based on contemporary findings made in other areas of research, with the hope that they may promote and serve as the impetus for future investigations designed to define more precisely the cellular mechanisms involved in the transport and handling of Cd within the body.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2003; 186(3):163-88. DOI:10.1016/S0041-008X(02)00021-2 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metallothionein is a copper- and zinc-bind ing protein present in most, if not all, tissues of higher eukaiyotic species of animals. This reviewfocuses on what is currently known about the characteristics, detection, oc currence, synthesis and turnover of metallothionein, spe cifically in livestock animals. The function of metallothi onein in copper and zinc metabolism, though widely acknowledged, remains controversial. Current evidence in support of a role in the detoxification as well as in the homeostasis of copper and zinc is presented, along with a proposed model summarizing the involvement of me tallothionein in basic cellular metabolism of copper and zinc. Also discussed are potential implications of metal lothionein in animal agriculture. J. Nutr. 119:1062 -1070, 1989.
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