The role of pericytes in angiogenesis
ABSTRACT Pericytes are branched cells embedded within the basement membrane of capillaries and post-capillary venules. They provide an incomplete investment to endothelial cells, thus reinforcing vascular structure and regulating microvascular blood flow. Pericytes exert an important role on endothelial cell proliferation, migration and stabilization. Endothelial cells, in turn, stimulate expansion and activation of the pericyte precursor cell population. The balance between the number of endothelial cells and pericytes is highly controlled by a series of signaling pathway mechanisms operating in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. In this review, we will first examine the molecular aspects of the pericyte activating factors secreted by endothelial cells, such as platelet derived growth factor B (PDGF-B), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and angiopoietins (Angs), as well as signaling pathways involving Notch and ephrins. We will then consider the complex and multivarious contribution of pericytes to the different aspects of angiogenesis with particular emphasis on the potential role of these cells as targets in tumor therapy.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of pericytes in constructing the malformed microvessels (MVs) and participating microvascular architecture heterogeneity of glioma. Forty human glioma tissue samples (WHO grade II-IV) were included in present study. Observation of blood vessel patterns, quantitative analysis of endothelial cells (ECs)- and pericyte-labeled MVs and comparison between malignant grades based on single- or double-immunohistochemical staining. The MV number density (MVND), microvascular pericyte number density (MPND), and microvascular pericyte area density (MPAD) were calculated. The expression of PDGFβ was also scored after immunostaining. In grade II glioma, most of tumor MVs were the thin-wall CD34+ vessels with near normal morphology. In addition to thin-wall CD34+ MVs, more thick-wall MVs were found in grade III glioma, which often showed α-SMA positive. Most of MVs in grade IV glioma were in the form of plexus, curled cell cords and glomeruloid microvascular proliferation while the α-SMA+ cells were the main components. The MVs usually showed disordered arrangement, loose connection and active cell proliferation as shown by Ki67 and α-SMA coexpression. With the increase of glioma grades, the α-SMA+ MVND, CD34+ MVND and MPND were significantly augmented although the increase of CD34+ MVND but not MPAD was statistically insignificant between grade III and IV. It was interesting that some vessel-like structures only consist of α-SMA+ cells, assuming the guiding role of pericytes in angiogenesis. The expression level of PDGFβ was upregulated and directly correlated with the MPND in different glioma grades. Hyperplasia of pericytes was one of the significant characteristics of malignant glioma and locally proliferated pericytes were the main constituent of MVs in high grade glioma. The pathological characteristics of pericytes could be used as indexes of malignant grades of glioma.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114246. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114246 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidences have shown the presence of multipotent stem cells (SCs) at sites of arterial aneurysms: they can differentiate into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and are activated after residing in a quiescent state in the vascular wall. Recent studies have implicated the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of arterial aneurysms: in fact the increased synthesis of MMPs by arterial SMCs is thought to be a pivotal mechanism in aneurysm formation. The factors and signaling pathways involved in regulating wall resident SC recruitment, survival, proliferation, growth factor production, and differentiation may be also related to selective expression of different MMPs. This review explores the relationship between adult vascular wall resident multipotent vascular SCs, MMPs, and arterial aneurysms.01/2015; 2015:434962. DOI:10.1155/2015/434962
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ABSTRACT: Lechiguana is a disease of cattle caused by an interaction between Dermatobia hominis warble and the bacteria Manheimia granulomatis. It is characterized by subcutaneous swellings that grow rapidly and result in death after 3 to 8 months. The objective of this paper was to investigate some vascular and fibrogenic changes of the disease at different lesion stages by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. A peculiar histopathological aspect observed during a proliferative phase (before treatment) was the intense vasculitis, described as degenerative and fibro-proliferative, expressed by the oncogene p53, possibly caused by the presence of bacteria in close contact with enthotelial cells, along with dense accumulations of lymphoid cells around venules. The synthesis of collagen fibers during the development of Lechiguana lesions assume a structural aspect of star arrangement with fiber radiation centers that gradually interconnect to design the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) framework, seen by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CSLM). Angiogenesis was the most characteristic finding in both proliferative and regressive stages as seen by the immunohistochemical expression of cytoskeleton proteins and von Willebrand (Factor VIII-Related Antigen). Additionally, in all tissues samples, active ECM elements like Metalloproteinases (MMPs), Tissue Inhibitors Metalloproteinases (TIMP) and Fibronectin (FN) were mainly associated to vessels structures. The extraordinary regression of exuberant granulation tissue after treatment is undoubtedly associated to the maintenance of the vascular components observed during the regressive phase.Veterinary Research Communications 01/2015; 39(1). DOI:10.1007/s11259-015-9627-4 · 1.36 Impact Factor