Recent national trends in Salvia divinorum use and substance-use disorders among recent and former Salvia divinorum users compared with nonusers.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
Substance abuse and rehabilitation 04/2011; 2011(2):53-68. DOI: 10.2147/SAR.S17192
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Media and scientific reports have indicated an increase in recreational use of Salvia divinorum. Epidemiological data are lacking on the trends, prevalence, and correlates of S. divinorum use in large representative samples, as well as the extent of substance use and mental health problems among S. divinorum users. OBJECTIVE: To examine the national trend in prevalence of S. divinorum use and to identify sociodemographic, behavioral, mental health, and substance-use profiles of recent (past-year) and former users of S. divinorum. DESIGN: Analyses of public-use data files from the 2006-2008 United States National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 166,453). SETTING: Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 12 years or older were interviewed in their places of residence. MAIN MEASURES: Substance use, S. divinorum, self-reported substance use disorders, criminality, depression, and mental health treatment were assessed by standardized survey questions administered by the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method. RESULTS: Among survey respondents, lifetime prevalence of S. divinorum use had increased from 0.7% in 2006 to 1.3% in 2008 (an 83% increase). S. divinorum use was associated with ages 18-25 years, male gender, white or multiple race, residence of large metropolitan areas, arrests for criminal activities, and depression. S. divinorum use was particularly common among recent drug users, including users of lysergic acid diethylamide (53.7%), ecstasy (30.1%), heroin (24.2%), phencyclidine (22.4%), and cocaine (17.5%). Adjusted multinomial logistic analyses indicated polydrug use as the strongest determinant for recent and former S. divinorum use. An estimated 43.0% of past-year S. divinorum users and 28.9% of former S. divinorum users had an illicit or nonmedical drug-use disorder compared with 2.5% of nonusers. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that recent and former S. divinorum users had greater odds of having past-year depression and a substance-use disorder (alcohol or drugs) than past-year alcohol or drug users who did not use S. divinorum. CONCLUSION: S. divinorum use is prevalent among recent or active drug users who have used other hallucinogens or stimulants. The high prevalence of substance use disorders among recent S. divinorum users emphasizes the need to study health risks of drug interactions.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lately, the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been considered a popular recreational product among adolescents, being legally sold in several countries in "smartshops" and in internet websites. Sellers frequently omit the safety information about the plant, encouraging its use for recreational purposes, without providing adequate qualitative and quantitative details. The principal hallucinogenic compound of the plant, salvinorin A, alongside with three other isomeric compounds, salvinorin B, C and D were evaluated in 10 products containing S. divinorum. These products were obtained in smartshops and from internet websites, and contained concentrated extracts of salvinorin A, with potencies labeled between "5x" and "60x". For that purpose a simple and rapid extraction protocol and a GC-MS methodology were developed and applied to the purchased samples. The analysis of S. divinorum samples allowed the identification of four salvinorins, salvinorin A being the most prevalent hallucinogen. In the tested samples, there were several unreliable data provided to consumers. Frequently, there was no information on salvinorin A concentration, but when it existed, it generally did not correspond to the true amount present in products. On the other hand, the concentration of salvinorin A in each product far exceeded the amount needed to produce hallucinogenic effects.
    Forensic science international. 07/2014; 242C:255-260.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salvia divinorum is a sage endemic to a small region of Mexico and has been traditionally used by the Mazatec Indians for divination and spiritual healing. Recently, it has gained increased popularity as a recreational drug, used by adolescents and young adults as an alternative to marijuana and LSD. Salvinorin A, the major active ingredient of the plant, is considered to be the most potent known hallucinogen of natural origin. This review surveys the current state of knowledge on the neurochemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological properties of salvinorin A, the trends and motivation behind S. divinorum use, and the health problems among users of the plant's products. S. divinorum induces intense, but short-lived, psychedelic-like changes in mood and perception, with concomitant hallucinations and disorientation. Many websites have misinterpreted the limited existing research-based information on the side effects of salvia as evidence for its safety. However, data accumulated over the last few years indicate that potential health risks are associated with the use of S. divinorum, especially by teenagers, users of other substances of abuse, and individuals with underlying psychotic disturbances. Taken together, the data presented in this review point to the need for further basic and clinical studies to create a basis for the development of well-addressed prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 06/2013; · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non-Hispanic Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals are the fastest growing segments of the US population. We examined prevalences and correlates of tobacco use among these understudied groups. Prevalences among whites were included as a comparison. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2002-2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Respondents aged ≥12 years were assessed for current (past-month) use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff), and pipe tobacco. Respondents' race/ethnicity, age, sex, household income, government assistance, urbanicity of residence, residential stability, self-rated health, alcohol use, and drug use were examined as correlates. RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2010, there was a decline in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among whites (26.9% in 2002; 24.3% in 2010) and Asian Americans (18.0% in 2002; 11.1% in 2010). Prevalence of pipe tobacco use among mixed-race individuals increased from 0.2% in 2002 to 1.6% in 2010; there was little change in the prevalence of cigar and smokeless tobacco use in these racial/ethnic groups. Adjusted analyses showed that, compared with Asian Americans, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of using four tobacco products, and NHs/PIs had greater odds of using cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. Regardless of race/ethnicity, male sex was a correlate of use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco; alcohol and drug use increased the odds of cigarette and cigar smoking. CONCLUSIONS: These new findings show prevalent tobacco use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals, and highlight the importance of including these populations in future research and reporting.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 02/2013; · 3.60 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 10, 2014