Secondary Somatic Mutations Restoring BRCA1/2 Predict Chemotherapy Resistance in Hereditary Ovarian Carcinomas

University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Box 356460, Seattle, WA, USA.
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 06/2011; 29(22):3008-15. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2010.34.2980
Source: PubMed


Secondary somatic BRCA1/2 mutations may restore BRCA1/2 protein in hereditary ovarian carcinomas. In cell lines, BRCA2 restoration mediates resistance to platinum chemotherapy and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. We assessed primary and recurrent BRCA1/2-mutated ovarian carcinomas to define the frequency of secondary mutations and correlate these changes with clinical outcomes.
Neoplastic cells were isolated with laser capture microdissection, and DNA was sequenced at the site of the known germline BRCA1/2 mutation. When secondary mutations were found that restored wild-type sequence, haplotyping was performed using single nucleotide polymorphisms in tumor and paired lymphocyte DNA to rule out retention of the wild-type allele.
There were 64 primary and 46 recurrent ovarian carcinomas assessed. Thirteen (28.3%) of 46 (95% CI, 17.3% to 42.6%) recurrent carcinomas had a secondary mutation compared with two (3.1%) of 64 (95% CI, 1.0% to 10.7%) primary carcinomas (P = .0003, Fisher's exact test). Twelve (46.2%) of 26 (95% CI, 28.7% to 64.7%) platinum-resistant recurrences had secondary mutations restoring BRCA1/2, compared with one (5.3%) of 19 (95% CI, 1.2% to 24.8%) platinum-sensitive recurrences (P = .003, Fisher's exact test). Six (66.7%) of nine (95% CI, 34.8% to 87.8%) women with prior breast carcinoma had a recurrent carcinoma with a secondary mutation, compared with six (17.1%) of 35 (95% CI, 8.2% to 32.8%) with no history of breast carcinoma (P = .007, Fisher's exact test).
Secondary somatic mutations that restore BRCA1/2 in carcinomas from women with germline BRCA1/2 mutations predict resistance to platinum chemotherapy and may also predict resistance to PARP inhibitors. These mutations were detectable only in ovarian carcinomas of women whom have had previous chemotherapy, either for ovarian or breast carcinoma.

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Available from: Christopher Pennil, Oct 08, 2015
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    • "Of note, a common mechanism of resistance to both platinum and PARP inhibitors is restoration of defective HR. For example, in BRCA-mutated tumors, secondary BRCA1/2 mutations that restore BRCA1/2 function have been described [23] [24] and may lead to development of both platinum and PARP inhibitor resistance. Although a discussion of mechanisms of PARP inhibitor resistance is beyond the scope of this review and is discussed elsewhere [24], responsiveness to platinum post-PARP inhibitor failure has been demonstrated suggesting that the mechanisms of resistance to platinum and PARP inhibitors are not completely overlapping [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical investigation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors for ovarian cancer treatment has rapidly evolved from observations of single-agent in vitro activity of these agents in BRCA-deficient cancer cells in 2005 to the initiation of multiple phase III studies in 2013. With clinical trial design and treatment of ovarian cancer increasingly based on histological and molecular characteristics, PARP inhibitors are on the horizon of becoming the first biologic agents to be used to treat ovarian cancer based upon pre-selection characteristics of the patient’s cancer. PARP inhibitors are most active in ovarian cancers that have defects or aberrations in DNA repair; use of these agents has been of particular interest in high grade serous cancers (HGSC), where studies have shown that ~ 50% of HGSC have abnormalities of DNA repair through BRCA germline and somatic mutation, post-translational changes of BRCA, and abnormalities of other DNA repair molecules. In addition, as aberrant DNA pathways in other histological subtypes of ovarian cancer are identified, and through the combination of PARP inhibitors with other biologic agents, the pool of eligible patients who may benefit from PARP inhibitors will likely expand. Pending review by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the outcome of confirmatory phase III studies, PARP inhibitors could become the first FDA-approved biologic agent for ovarian cancer and also the first new FDA-approval in ovarian cancer since carboplatin and gemcitabine were approved for platinum sensitive ovarian cancer in 2006. This review discusses the PARP inhibitors that are currently in testing for ovarian cancer treatment and the future of this class of anti-cancer agents.
    Gynecologic Oncology 05/2014; 133(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.02.039 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    • "PARP inhibitor therapy has shown promise in BRCA mutation carriers [56] [57]. However, with the development of platinum-resistant disease, nearly 50% of patient tumors demonstrate gene reversions [4]. Use of VEGFR3 inhibitors in combination with Figure 4. VEGFR3 inhibition with Maz51 chemosensitizes in vitro in a BRCA-dependent manner. "
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    ABSTRACT: In ovarian cancer, loss of BRCA gene expression in tumors is associated with improved response to chemotherapy and increased survival. A means to pharmacologically downregulate BRCA gene expression could improve the outcomes of patients with BRCA wild-type tumors. We report that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) inhibition in ovarian cancer cells is associated with decreased levels of both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Inhibition of VEGFR3 in ovarian tumor cells was associated with growth arrest. CD133(+) ovarian cancer stemlike cells were preferentially susceptible to VEGFR3-mediated growth inhibition. VEGFR3 inhibition-mediated down-regulation of BRCA gene expression reversed chemotherapy resistance and restored chemosensitivity in resistant cell lines in which a BRCA2 mutation had reverted to wild type. Finally, we demonstrate that tumor-associated macrophages are a primary source of VEGF-C in the tumor microenvironment. Our studies suggest that VEGFR3 inhibition may be a pharmacologic means to downregulate BRCA genes and improve the outcomes of patients with BRCA wild-type tumors.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 04/2014; 16(4):343-353.e2. DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2014.04.003 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    • "In all clones, the reading frame had been restored, and a functional protein was expressed. Similarly, frame-shift mutations in the BRCA1 gene can be reversed by secondary mutations in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancers (34, 35). Mechanistically, secondary mutations could be the result of error-prone DNA repair in cells that lack a functional HR system. "
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR.
    Frontiers in Oncology 03/2014; 4:34. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00034
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