Epidemiology of Osteoporosis in an Isolated Sardinian Population by Using Quantitative Ultrasound

Institute of Population Genetics, National Research Council of Italy, Sassari, Italy.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 06/2011; 174(4):432-9. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwr106
Source: PubMed


This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in a Sardinian isolated population using hand quantitative ultrasound and at investigating the associated factors. The authors utilized a subset of data from a large population-based epidemiologic survey carried out in the Ogliastra region of Sardinia between 2003 and 2008. The sample consists of 6,326 men and women aged ≥30 years, who underwent quantitative ultrasound at the phalanges, bioelectrical impedance, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, and a standardized epidemiologic questionnaire collecting sociodemographic, lifestyle, medical, physiologic, and pharmacologic data. The T-score thresholds for amplitude-dependent speed of sound of -3.2 standard deviations and between -3.2 and -1 standard deviations were used to diagnose osteoporosis and osteopenia, respectively. Prevalence of osteoporosis was 17.0% in women and 5.2% in men. Logistic regression analysis revealed that factors associated with osteoporosis were age, anthropometric and bioimpedance measures, alkaline phosphatase levels, and menopause in women. High education, exercise, and beer consumption seem to be protective factors, whereas a family history of osteoporosis is a risk factor. Results show that osteoporosis in this population is comparable with that found in different countries, suggesting that quantitative ultrasound could be used more widely to detect high-risk individuals for preventing osteoporotic fractures.

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    • "Anabolic therapy with parathyroid hormone (PTH) peptides has also been used for severe osteoporosis [3]. In addition, prevention strategies such as physical exercise and dietary vitamin D were introduced to reduce lifetime risk of osteoporosis [4]. Despite these efforts, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are still a serious public health issue, with low diagnosis and treatment rates. "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis, the most common type of bone disease worldwide, is clinically characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased susceptibility to fracture. Multiple genetic and environmental factors and gene-environment interactions have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Osteoporosis has strong genetic determination, with the heritability of BMD estimated to be as high as 60%. More than 80 genes or genetic variants have been implicated in risk of osteoporosis by hypothesis-free genome-wide studies. However, these genes or genetic variants can only explain a small portion of BMD variation, suggesting that many other genes or genetic variants underlying osteoporosis risk await discovery. Here, we review recent progress in genome-wide studies of osteoporosis and discuss their implications for medicine and the major challenges in the field.
    Genome Medicine 05/2013; 5(5):44. DOI:10.1186/gm448 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The proportion of older people will be tripled by the year 2050. In addition, the incidence of chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions will also increase among the elderly people. Thus, in order to prepare for future health care demands, the magnitude and impact of MSK conditions from this growing population is needed. The objective of this literature review is to determine the current prevalence of MSK disorders in the elderly population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed on articles in English, published between January 2000 and July 2011. Studies from developed countries with prevalence estimates on elderly people (60+) on the following MSK conditions were included: Non-specific extremity pain, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and back pain. The included articles were extracted for information and assessed for risk of bias. Results A total of 85 articles were included with 173 different prevalence estimates. Musculoskeletal disorders are common in the elderly population, but due to heterogeneity of the studies, no general estimate on the prevalence of MSK can be determined. Women report more often MSK pain than men. Overall, prevalence estimates either remain fairly constant or increase slightly with increasing age, but with a tendency to decrease in the oldest (80+) people. Conclusions Musculoskeletal disorders remain prevalent in the elderly population. Given the increasing proportion of elderly population in the world population and the burden of MSK diseases among the elderly people, efforts must be made to maintain their functional capacity for as long as possible through optimal primary and secondary health care.
    Chiropractic and Manual Therapies 09/2012; 20(1). DOI:10.1186/2045-709X-20-31
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is one of the most common public health problems affecting adults and elderlies in developing countries. This study aims to examine the potential risk factors of osteoporosis among adults in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia. This is a case-control study. Cases and controls were assigned by two radiologists after radiographic examination of the wrist. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used and information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected. Data was processed and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 19. Binary logistic regression was used to control confounders. A total of 130 osteoporotic cases and 266 controls participated in the study. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of cases and controls were 60.9 ± 10.1 and 46.9 ± 8.7 years, respectively. The multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex showed that rural residents were 1.93 times more likely to develop osteoporosis than the urban inhabitants with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.93 (95% CI, 1.11, 3.36). The strongest association was also found when the work of the respondent involves decreased physical activity with AOR 3.53 (95% CI, 1.98 and 6.30). Furthermore, milk consumption greater than four times a week and smoking showed a significant association with the AOR 0.33 (95% CI, 0.19 and 0.58), and AOR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.05 and 0.58), respectively. Residing in the rural setting and smoking were positively associated with osteoporosis. In contrast, milk intake greater than four times a week, and when work involves vigorous exercise, appeared to be associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, the findings from the study suggest the need for changes of lifestyle that includes encouraging adults to stop smoking, engage in vigorous physical activities aging and adequate dietary intake including milk. Strategies to identify and manage osteoporosis in the primary health care setting need to be established.
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