Inhibitors of histone deacetylases have been approved for clinical application in cancer treatment. On the other hand, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors have been less extensively investigated for their potential use in cancer therapy. In prostate cancer, the HATs and coactivators p300 and CBP are upregulated and may induce transcription of androgen receptor (AR)-responsive genes, even in the absence or presence of low levels of AR. To discover a potential anticancer effect of p300/CBP inhibition, we used two different approaches: (i) downregulation of p300 and CBP by specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) and (ii) chemical inhibition of the acetyltransferase activity by a newly developed small molecule, C646. Knockdown of p300 by specific siRNA, but surprisingly not of CBP, led to an increase of caspase-dependent apoptosis involving both extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways in androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis was mediated by several pathways including inhibition of AR function and decrease of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65. Furthermore, cell invasion was decreased upon p300, but not CBP, depletion and was accompanied by lower matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 transcriptions. Thus, p300 and CBP have differential roles in the processes of survival and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells was confirmed by the use of C646. This was substantiated by a decrease of AR function and downregulation of p65 impairing several NF-κB target genes. Taken together, these results suggest that p300 inhibition may be a promising approach for the development of new anticancer therapies.
"Others have shown that, in the nucleus, PTOV1 antagonizes the transcriptional activity of complexes requiring the histone acetyl-transferase CBP . Although CBP was reported to function as a classic tumor-suppressor gene in the mouse and in prostate cancer [40-43], other evidences have also suggested a role in promoting cell proliferation and prostate cancer progression [44,45]. We thus searched for interactions of PTOV1 with transcriptional networks known to participate in the progression of PC and other cancers. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PTOV1 is an adaptor protein with functions in diverse processes, including gene transcription and protein translation, whose overexpression is associated with a higher proliferation index and tumor grade in prostate cancer (PC) and other neoplasms. Here we report its interaction with the Notch pathway and its involvement in PC progression.
Stable PTOV1 knockdown or overexpression were performed by lentiviral transduction. Protein interactions were analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down and/or immunofluorescence. Endogenous gene expression was analyzed by real time RT-PCR and/or Western blotting. Exogenous promoter activities were studied by luciferase assays. Gene promoter interactions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP). In vivo studies were performed in the Drosophila melanogaster wing, the SCID-Beige mouse model, and human prostate cancer tissues and metastasis. The Excel package was used for statistical analysis.
Knockdown of PTOV1 in prostate epithelial cells and HaCaT skin keratinocytes caused the upregulation, and overexpression of PTOV1 the downregulation, of the Notch target genes HEY1 and HES1, suggesting that PTOV1 counteracts Notch signaling. Under conditions of inactive Notch signaling, endogenous PTOV1 associated with the HEY1 and HES1 promoters, together with components of the Notch repressor complex. Conversely, expression of active Notch1 provoked the dismissal of PTOV1 from these promoters. The antagonist role of PTOV1 on Notch activity was corroborated in the Drosophila melanogaster wing, where human PTOV1 exacerbated Notch deletion mutant phenotypes and suppressed the effects of constitutively active Notch. PTOV1 was required for optimal in vitro invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth of PC-3 cells, activities counteracted by Notch, and for their efficient growth and metastatic spread in vivo. In prostate tumors, the overexpression of PTOV1 was associated with decreased expression of HEY1 and HES1, and this correlation was significant in metastatic lesions.
High levels of the adaptor protein PTOV1 counteract the transcriptional activity of Notch. Our evidences link the pro-oncogenic and pro-metastatic effects of PTOV1 in prostate cancer to its inhibitory activity on Notch signaling and are supportive of a tumor suppressor role of Notch in prostate cancer progression.
Molecular Cancer 03/2014; 13(1):74. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-74 · 4.26 Impact Factor
"While CBP/p300 has been linked to p21 expression [61,62], we have yet to fully characterize CBP/p300’s involvement in these cells. Furthermore, while CBP/p300 has been reported as a tumor suppressor , others report opposite findings  as these effects maybe tumor specific. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zyflamend, a mixture containing extracts of ten herbs, has shown promise in a variety of preclinical cancer models, including prostate cancer. The current experiments were designed to investigate the effects of Zyflamend on the expression of class I and II histone deacetylases, a family of enzymes known to be over expressed in a variety of cancers.
CWR22Rv1 cells, a castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell line, were treated with Zyflamend and the expression of class I and II histone deacetylases, along with their downstream target the tumor suppressor gene p21, was investigated. Involvement of p21 was confirmed with siRNA knockdown and over expression experiments.
Zyflamend down-regulated the expression of all class I and II histone deacetylases where Chinese goldthread and baikal skullcap (two of its components) appear to be primarily responsible for these results. In addition, Zyflamend up regulated the histone acetyl transferase complex CBP/p300, potentially contributing to the increase in histone 3 acetylation. Expression of the tumor suppressor gene p21, a known downstream target of histone deacetylases and CBP/p300, was increased by Zyflamend treatment and the effect on p21 was, in part, mediated through Erk1/2. Knockdown of p21 with siRNA technology attenuated Zyflamend-induced growth inhibition. Over expression of p21 inhibited cell growth and concomitant treatment with Zyflamend enhanced this effect.
Our results suggest that the extracts of this polyherbal combination increase histone 3 acetylation, inhibit the expression of class I and class II histone deacetylases, increase the activation of CBP/p300 and inhibit cell proliferation, in part, by up regulating p21 expression.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2014; 14(1):68. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-68 · 2.02 Impact Factor
"Recently, compound C646 was designed by virtual ligand screening and was shown to be a potent, highly selective, cell permeable small molecule p300 HAT inhibitor . The C646 inhibitor impedes intracellular histone acetylation and slows growth of cancer cells in vitro , ; however, the effectiveness of C646 in animal and human studies has not been reported. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with a pronounced collagen-rich stromal reaction that has been shown to contribute to chemo-resistance. We have previously shown that PDAC cells are resistant to gemcitabine chemotherapy in the collagen microenvironment because of increased expression of the chromatin remodeling protein high mobility group A2 (HMGA2). We have now found that human PDAC tumors display higher levels of histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation in fibrotic regions. We show that relative to cells grown on tissue culture plastic, PDAC cells grown in three-dimensional collagen gels demonstrate increased histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation, along with increased expression of p300, PCAF and GCN5 histone acetyltransferases (HATs). Knocking down HMGA2 attenuates the effect of collagen on histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and on collagen-induced p300, PCAF and GCN5 expression. We also show that human PDAC tumors with HMGA2 demonstrate increased histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation. Additionally, we show that cells in three-dimensional collagen gels demonstrate increased protection against gemcitabine. Significantly, down-regulation of HMGA2 or p300, PCAF and GCN5 HATs sensitizes the cells to gemcitabine in three-dimensional collagen. Overall, our results increase our understanding of how the collagen microenvironment contributes to chemo-resistance in vitro and identify HATs as potential therapeutic targets against this deadly cancer.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64566. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064566 · 3.23 Impact Factor
A Kocael, B B Inal, G Guntas, C Kelten, H Inal, H I Topac, P Kocael, O Simsek, G Karaca, Z Salihoglu, H Uzun
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