Erythromycin prevents the pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to cigarette smoke
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan.Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine 07/2011; 158(1):30-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.trsl.2011.03.001
The effect of erythromycin on the inflammation caused by exposure to cigarette smoke was investigated in this study. Mice were exposed either to cigarette smoke or to environmental air (control), and some mice exposed to cigarette smoke were treated with oral erythromycin (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days). Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by determining the cellular content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of various mediators, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, surfactant protein (SP)-D, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 in lung tissue were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. The exposure to cigarette smoke increased significantly the numbers of neutrophils (P = 0.029), macrophages (P = 0.029), and lymphocytes (P = 0.029) recovered in BAL fluid. Moreover, mRNA levels of KC (P = 0.029), MIP-2 (P = 0.029), SP-D (P = 0.029), and GM-CSF (P = 0.057) in the lung tissue were higher in mice exposed to cigarette smoke than in mice exposed to environmental air. In the erythromycin-treated mice that were exposed also to cigarette smoke, both neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in the BAL fluid than those in the vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.029). Erythromycin-treated mice exposed to cigarette smoke showed a trend of lower mRNA levels of KC and TNF-α in the lung tissue than those in the vehicle-treated mice, although the statistical significance was not achieved (P = 0.057). Our data demonstrated that erythromycin prevented lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke, in parallel to the reduced mRNA levels of KC and TNF-α.
Conference Paper: The unknown thru calibration advantage[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The "unknown thru" calibration method was proposed by Andrea Ferrero and Umberto Pisani in 1992. It is one of many variations possible under the general theory of vector network analyzer, VNA, calibration. It is well suited for calibrating a VNA system with immobile or untouchable test ports, such as a wafer probe station. It is also an ideal calibration method for measuring non-insertable, odd shape and multiport devices. This paper will provide a quick overview of the theory, uncertainty analysis and show some examples of how this calibration method can be used to improve measurement accuracy and consistency.ARFTG Conference Digest Spring, 2004. 63rd; 02/2004
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ABSTRACT: The exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with emphysema. In addition to chronic lung inflammation, emphysema is known mainly for the complex pathogenesis associated with imbalance of proteolytic and antiproteolytic activities, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of lung structural cells. Increasing evidence shows that erythromycin, which is a macrolide antibiotic, ameliorates chronic inflammation via mechanisms independent of its antibacterial activity. We hypothesize that erythromycin protects against CS-induced emphysema and inflammation in rats via its anti-inflammation and antiapoptosis action. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intratracheally solution twice and exposed to the CS, the control rats were administered saline intratracheally and exposed to ambient air for 3 weeks. Then, all the CS rats were distributed randomly into 3 groups and, respectively, treated orally with saline (LPS + CS + saline), Guilongkechuanning capsule (450 mg/kg) (LPS + CS + GLKCN), or erythromycin (100 mg/kg) (LPS + CS + ERY) 0.5 h before CS exposure for 2 weeks. On day 36, the rats were killed. The cytokines in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The middle lobe of the right lung was removed for histology and apoptosis analyses, respectively. Emphysematous lesions and inflammatory cell infiltrations in the CS group were evident by a histologic analysis. Erythromycin protected significantly against the alveolar enlargement levels (P = 0.0017), reduced the pathologic apoptosis (P = 0.0023) related with Bcl-2 (P = 0.0002) and Bax (P = 0.0002), and inhibited the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 (P = 0.0019) and TIMP-1 protein (P = 0.04) and the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (P = 0.0002) in the lungs of CS-induced emphysema in rats. The protective effect of erythromycin on CS-induced emphysema and inflammation in rats is associated with a reduction in inflammation, imbalance of MMP-9/TIMP-1, and apoptosis of lung structural cells. However, erythromycin did not recover completely the emphysematous morphologic changes to the levels when compared with control rats. This distinctive pattern implies that erythromycin might have the potential to suppress airway inflammation and maintain the integrity of airway epithelium to some extent.06/2012; 159(6):464-72. DOI:10.1016/j.trsl.2011.09.007
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of grapefruit and citrus fruits, was found to be as an effective anti-inflammatory compound in our previous lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mouse model via blockading activity of nuclear factor κB. The current study sought to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on chronic pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced rats. Seventy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups to study the effects of CS with or without various concentrations of naringin or saline for 8 weeks. The results revealed that naringin supplementation at 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg significantly increased body weight of CS-induced rats as compared to that in the CS group. Moreover, naringin of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg prevented CS-induced infiltration of neutrophils and activation of myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9, in parallel with suppression of the release of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was significantly suppressed after CS exposure, but dose dependently elevated by naringin. The results from hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that naringin dose dependently reduced CS-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickening of the bronchial wall, and expansion of average alveolar airspace. In conclusion, our data suggest that naringin is an effective anti-inflammatory compound for attenuating chronic pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation in CS-induced rats.Journal of medicinal food 09/2012; 15(10):894-900. DOI:10.1089/jmf.2012.2251 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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