Transcranial direct current stimulation's effect on novice versus experienced learning.
ABSTRACT Transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation applied via a weak electrical current passed between electrodes on the scalp. In recent studies, TDCS has been shown to improve learning when applied to the prefrontal cortex (e.g., Kincses et al. in Neuropsychologia 42:113-117, 2003; Clark et al. Neuroimage in 2010). The present study examined the effects of TDCS delivered at the beginning of training (novice) or after an hour of training (experienced) on participants' ability to detect cues indicative of covert threats. Participants completed two 1-h training sessions. During the first 30 min of each training session, either 0.1 mA or 2.0 mA of anodal TDCS was delivered to the participant. The anode was positioned near F8, and the cathode was placed on the upper left arm. Testing trials immediately followed training. Accuracy in classification of images containing and not-containing threat stimuli during the testing sessions indicated: (1) that mastery of threat detection significantly increased with training, (2) that anodal TDCS at 2 mA significantly enhanced learning, and (3) TDCS was significantly more effective in enhancing test performance when applied in novice learners than in experienced learners. The enhanced performance following training with TDCS persisted into the second session when TDCS was delivered early in training.