The study aimed to evaluate whether the inflammatory marker "high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)" level was associated with impaired heart rate recovery at 1 min after exercise termination (HRR-1) in middle-aged patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Thirty middle-aged male patients (40-64 years old) with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30 h(-1)) and 30 subjects without OSA (AHI < 5 h(-1)), matched with age and body mass index (BMI), were recruited. All subjects underwent an overnight polysomnography and completed a symptom-limited maximal exercise test. Cardiopulmonary parameters included peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) and heart rate response during and immediately after exercise. Fasting blood samples were drawn for hsCRP analysis.
Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher hsCRP levels (0.18 vs. 0.07 mg/dl, P < 0.01), lower reduced HRR-1, peak heart rate, and VO(2peak) values than those in the controls. The hsCRP levels significantly correlated with HRR-1 in the OSA group (r = -0.69, P < 0.01) after adjustment for VO(2peak) (r = -0.66, P < 0.01). Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that HRR-1 and AHI were significant predictors of hsCRP levels in all participants (adjusted R(2) = 0.53, P < 0.01).
Blunted HRR was shown in middle-aged men with severe OSA, and it was associated with high hsCRP levels significantly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) predisposes individuals to cardiovascular morbidity, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) markers prognostic for cardiovascular disease have been found to be abnormal in adults with OSA. Due to the persistence of OSA and its cardiovascular consequences, whether the cardiovascular adaptations normally conferred by exercise are blunted in adults not utilizing established OSA treatment is unknown. The aims of this study were to document whether OSA participants have abnormal CPET responses and determine whether exercise modifies these CPET markers in individuals with OSA. METHODS: The CPET responses of 43 sedentary, overweight adults (body mass index [BMI]>25) with untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]≥15) were compared against matched non-OSA controls (n=9). OSA participants were then randomized to a 12-week exercise training (n=27) or stretching control treatment (n=16), followed by a post-intervention CPET. Measures of resting, exercise, and post-exercise recovery heart rate (HRR), blood pressure, and ventilation, as well as peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)), were obtained. RESULTS: OSA participants had blunted HRR compared to non-OSA controls at 1 (P=.03), 3 (P=.02), and 5-min post-exercise (P=.03). For OSA participants, exercise training improved VO(2peak) (P=.04) and HRR at 1 (P=.03), 3 (P<.01), and 5-min post-exercise (P<.001) compared to control. AHI change was associated with change in HRR at 5-min post-exercise (r=-.30, P<.05), but no other CPET markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that individuals with OSA have autonomic dysfunction, and that exercise training, by increasing HRR and VO(2peak), may attenuate autonomic imbalance and improve functional capacity independent of OSA severity reduction.
International journal of cardiology 05/2012; 167(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.04.108 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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