C-reactive protein and heart rate recovery in middle-aged men with severe obstructive sleep apnea
ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate whether the inflammatory marker "high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)" level was associated with impaired heart rate recovery at 1 min after exercise termination (HRR-1) in middle-aged patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Thirty middle-aged male patients (40-64 years old) with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30 h(-1)) and 30 subjects without OSA (AHI < 5 h(-1)), matched with age and body mass index (BMI), were recruited. All subjects underwent an overnight polysomnography and completed a symptom-limited maximal exercise test. Cardiopulmonary parameters included peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) and heart rate response during and immediately after exercise. Fasting blood samples were drawn for hsCRP analysis.
Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher hsCRP levels (0.18 vs. 0.07 mg/dl, P < 0.01), lower reduced HRR-1, peak heart rate, and VO(2peak) values than those in the controls. The hsCRP levels significantly correlated with HRR-1 in the OSA group (r = -0.69, P < 0.01) after adjustment for VO(2peak) (r = -0.66, P < 0.01). Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that HRR-1 and AHI were significant predictors of hsCRP levels in all participants (adjusted R(2) = 0.53, P < 0.01).
Blunted HRR was shown in middle-aged men with severe OSA, and it was associated with high hsCRP levels significantly.
- SourceAvailable from: Micha T MaederSleep And Breathing 06/2011; 16(3):593-4. DOI:10.1007/s11325-011-0550-9 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) predisposes individuals to cardiovascular morbidity, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) markers prognostic for cardiovascular disease have been found to be abnormal in adults with OSA. Due to the persistence of OSA and its cardiovascular consequences, whether the cardiovascular adaptations normally conferred by exercise are blunted in adults not utilizing established OSA treatment is unknown. The aims of this study were to document whether OSA participants have abnormal CPET responses and determine whether exercise modifies these CPET markers in individuals with OSA. METHODS: The CPET responses of 43 sedentary, overweight adults (body mass index [BMI]>25) with untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]≥15) were compared against matched non-OSA controls (n=9). OSA participants were then randomized to a 12-week exercise training (n=27) or stretching control treatment (n=16), followed by a post-intervention CPET. Measures of resting, exercise, and post-exercise recovery heart rate (HRR), blood pressure, and ventilation, as well as peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)), were obtained. RESULTS: OSA participants had blunted HRR compared to non-OSA controls at 1 (P=.03), 3 (P=.02), and 5-min post-exercise (P=.03). For OSA participants, exercise training improved VO(2peak) (P=.04) and HRR at 1 (P=.03), 3 (P<.01), and 5-min post-exercise (P<.001) compared to control. AHI change was associated with change in HRR at 5-min post-exercise (r=-.30, P<.05), but no other CPET markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that individuals with OSA have autonomic dysfunction, and that exercise training, by increasing HRR and VO(2peak), may attenuate autonomic imbalance and improve functional capacity independent of OSA severity reduction.International journal of cardiology 05/2012; 167(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.04.108 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to and is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. Ongoing inflammatory responses play an important role in this association. Multiple small size studies addressing the profile of the inflammatory markers in OSA are available therefore we performed a meta-analysis. Systematic review of medical literature was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases from 1968 to 2011 by utilizing the key words obstructive sleep apnea, C-Reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) and Selectins. Inclusion criteria were: full text English articles; studies with adult population; reported values for at least one of the markers of interest; with at least two separate groups (subjects with OSA and control group); OSA was defined as AHI of ≥ 5/h. Five hundred and twelve studies were reviewed for inclusion with 51 studies pooled for analysis (30 studies for CRP, 19 studies for TNF-α, 8 studies for ICAM, 18 studies for IL-6, six studies for VCAM and 5 studies for Selectins). The levels of inflammatory markers were higher in patients with OSA compared to control group. Standardized pooled Mean differences were calculated to be 1.77 for CRP, 1.03 for TNF-α, 2.16 for IL-6, 4.22 for IL-8, 2.93 for ICAM, 1.45 for Selectins and 2.08 for VCAM. In this meta-analysis, the levels of systemic inflammatory markers were found to be higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Nadeem R; Molnar J; Madbouly EM; Nida M; Aggarwal S; Sajid H; Naseem J; Loomba R. Serum inflammatory markers in obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1003-1012.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2013; 9(10):1003-1012. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3070 · 2.83 Impact Factor