Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids and the Risk for Age-Related Maculopathy: The Alienor Study

INSERM U897, Bordeaux, France.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (Impact Factor: 3.43). 06/2011; 52(8):6004-11. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.11-7254
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have suggested a lower risk for age-related maculopathy (ARM) in subjects with high dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The authors report the associations of ARM with past dietary intakes in French elderly subjects.
The Alienor Study is a population-based epidemiologic study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in residents of Bordeaux 73 years of age and older. Six hundred sixty-six subjects (1289 eyes) with complete data were included in the analyses. ARM was classified from retinal photographs taken in 2006 to 2008 in five exclusive stages: late neovascular ARM (n = 21 subjects, 29 eyes); late atrophic ARM (n = 19 subjects, 33 eyes); large soft indistinct drusen and/or reticular drusen and/or large distinct drusen with pigment abnormalities (early ARM2, n = 67 subjects, 100 eyes); large soft distinct drusen alone or pigment abnormalities alone (early ARM1, n = 119 subjects, 163 eyes); and no ARM (n = 440 subjects, 964 eyes). Dietary intakes were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall performed by dieticians (2001-2002). Associations were estimated using logistic Generalized Estimating Equation.
After multivariate adjustment, subjects with high intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFA showed a decreased risk for early ARM1 (odds ratio [OR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.71-0.98; P = 0.03) and late neovascular ARM (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.83; P = 0.02). Associations with late atrophic ARM were in the same direction but did not reach statistical significance (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.52-1.06; P = 0.10). Overall, high intakes of long-chain omega-3 PUFA were associated with reduced risk for late ARM (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39-0.88; P = 0.01).
These results confirm a decreased risk for ARM in subjects with high intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFA.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the CAP (Creteil AMD PHRC-funded) Study was to analyze risk factors of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large French case-control population. One thousand and twenty-four patients with exudative AMD and 275 controls were recruited. Information about lifestyle, medical history, and dietary intake were collected. Associations of risk factors were estimated using logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, CFH Y402H and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms were associated with very high risk for exudative AMD (OR = 6.21 and OR = 11.7, respectively, p < 0.0001). Risk for exudative AMD was increased in current smokers (OR = 3.79, p = 0.0003) and former smokers having quitted since less than 20 years ago (OR = 2.30, p = 0.002), but not in former smokers having quitted since 20 years or more ago (OR = 0.81, p = 0.43). Heavy smokers (at least 25 pack-years) were particularly at risk (OR = 3.61, p < 0.0001). Use of cooking oils rich in omega 3 fatty acids was significantly associated with a reduced risk of exudative AMD (OR = 0.55, 95 % CI: 0.36-0.84, p = 0.006), as well as a high consumption of fruits (OR = 0.60, 95 % CI: 0.37-0.98, p = 0.04), but not the consumption of fish, vegetables or oils rich in omega 6. High waist circumference was associated with increased risk for exudative AMD (OR = 2.53, p < 0.0001), but not hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, or body mass index. The CAP Study confirms major genetic risk factors for exudative AMD. It further documents the high risk in heavy smokers and the long persistence of risk after smoking cessation, and the associations with waist circumference and fruit consumption. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between AMD and cooking oils harboring a beneficial omega-3 fatty acid profile.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 12/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00417-013-2537-7 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Agro Food Industry Hi Tech 01/2012; 23(4):10-13. · 0.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess the associations of serum, red-blood cell membranes (RBCM) and dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: We included 290 patients of the Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 Study (NAT2) with neovascular AMD in one eye and early AMD lesions in the other eye and 144 normal vision controls without AMD. Dietary intake of seafood was estimated by food frequency questionnaire. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition in serum and RBCM were determined by gas chromatography from 12h-fasting blood samples and was expressed as percentages of total fatty acids profile. Logistic regressions estimated associations of neovascular AMD with dietary intake of seafood and circulating n-3 LC-PUFAs. Results: Dietary oily fish and seafood intake were significantly lower in AMD patients than in controls. After adjustment for all potential confounders (age, gender, CFH Y402H, ARMS2 A69S, and ApoE4 polymorphisms, plasma triglycerides, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and family history of AMD), serum EPA was significantly associated with a lower risk for neovascular AMD (OR=0.41 (0.22-0.77); p=0.005). Analysis of RBCM revealed that EPA and EPA+DHA were significantly associated with a lower risk for neovascular AMD (OR=0.25 (0.13-0.47); p<0.0001 and OR=0.52 (0.29-0.94); p=0.03, respectively). Conclusions: RBCM EPA and EPA+DHA, as long term biomarkers of n-3 dietary PUFA status, were strongly associated with neovascular AMD and may represent an objective marker identifying subjects at high risk for neovascular AMD, whom may most benefit from nutritional interventions.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 02/2014; 55(3). DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-13916 · 3.43 Impact Factor


Available from
May 22, 2014