Article

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and the risk for age-related maculopathy: the Alienor Study.

INSERM U897, Bordeaux, France.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (Impact Factor: 3.43). 06/2011; 52(8):6004-11. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.11-7254
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have suggested a lower risk for age-related maculopathy (ARM) in subjects with high dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The authors report the associations of ARM with past dietary intakes in French elderly subjects.
The Alienor Study is a population-based epidemiologic study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in residents of Bordeaux 73 years of age and older. Six hundred sixty-six subjects (1289 eyes) with complete data were included in the analyses. ARM was classified from retinal photographs taken in 2006 to 2008 in five exclusive stages: late neovascular ARM (n = 21 subjects, 29 eyes); late atrophic ARM (n = 19 subjects, 33 eyes); large soft indistinct drusen and/or reticular drusen and/or large distinct drusen with pigment abnormalities (early ARM2, n = 67 subjects, 100 eyes); large soft distinct drusen alone or pigment abnormalities alone (early ARM1, n = 119 subjects, 163 eyes); and no ARM (n = 440 subjects, 964 eyes). Dietary intakes were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall performed by dieticians (2001-2002). Associations were estimated using logistic Generalized Estimating Equation.
After multivariate adjustment, subjects with high intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFA showed a decreased risk for early ARM1 (odds ratio [OR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.71-0.98; P = 0.03) and late neovascular ARM (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.83; P = 0.02). Associations with late atrophic ARM were in the same direction but did not reach statistical significance (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.52-1.06; P = 0.10). Overall, high intakes of long-chain omega-3 PUFA were associated with reduced risk for late ARM (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39-0.88; P = 0.01).
These results confirm a decreased risk for ARM in subjects with high intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFA.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
128 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched oral supplementation in preventing exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: The Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel, comparative study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred sixty-three patients 55 years of age or older and younger than 85 years with early lesions of age-related maculopathy and visual acuity better than 0.4 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution units in the study eye and neovascular AMD in the fellow eye. METHODS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive either 840 mg/day DHA and 270 mg/day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from fish oil capsules or the placebo (olive oil capsules) for 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was time to occurrence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the study eye. Secondary outcome measures in the study eye were: incidence of CNV developing in patients, changes in visual acuity, occurrence and progression of drusen, and changes in EPA plus DHA level in red blood cell membrane (RBCM). RESULTS: Time to occurrence and incidence of CNV in the study eye were not significantly different between the DHA group (19.5±10.9 months and 28.4%, respectively) and the placebo group (18.7±10.6 months and 25.6%, respectively). In the DHA group, EPA plus DHA levels increased significantly in RBCM (+70%; P<0.001), suggesting that DHA easily penetrated cells, but this occurred unexpectedly also in the placebo group (+9%; P = 0.007). In the DHA-allocated group, patients steadily achieving the highest tertile of EPA plus DHA levels in RBCM had significantly lower risk (-68%; P = 0.047; hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.99) of CNV developing over 3 years. No marked changes from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity, drusen progression, or geographic atrophy in the study eye were observed throughout the study in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with unilateral exudative AMD, 3 years of oral DHA-enriched supplementation had the same effect on CNV incidence in the second eye as did the placebo. However, RBCM fatty acid measurements revealed that CNV incidence was significantly reduced in DHA-supplemented patients showing a steadily high EPA plus DHA index over 3 years. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
    Ophthalmology 02/2013; · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: There is still a great demand for the improvement of oral prophylaxis methods. One repeatedly described approach is rinsing with edible oils. The aim of the present review paper was to analyze the role of lipids in bioadhesion and preventive dentistry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Despite limited sound scientific data, extensive literature search was performed to illustrate possible effects of lipids in the oral cavity. RESULTS: It is to be assumed that lipophilic components modulate the process of bioadhesion to the oral hard tissues as well as the composition and ultrastructure of the initial oral biofilm or the pellicle, respectively. Thereby, lipids could add hydrophobic characteristics to the tooth surface hampering bacterial colonization and eventually decreasing caries susceptibility. Also, a lipid-enriched pellicle might be more resistant in case of acid exposure and could therefore reduce the erosive mineral loss. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects on the oral soft tissues were described. However, there is only limited evidence for these beneficial impacts. Neither the lipid composition of saliva and pellicle nor the interactions of lipids with the initial oral biofilm and the pellicle layer have been investigated adequately until now. CONCLUSION: Edible oils might qualify as mild supplements to conventional strategies for the prevention of caries, erosion, and periodontal diseases but further research is necessary. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Against the background of current scientific and empirical knowledge, edible oils might be used as oral hygiene supplements but a decisive benefit for the oral health status is questionable.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 09/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness. Improved knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease has allowed the exploration of new therapeutic methods. In general, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), oxidative stress, and vascular insufficiency are accepted as the major risk factors for the progression of glaucoma. Many natural compounds have been found beneficial for glaucoma. Nutritional therapies are now emerging as potentially effective in glaucomatous therapy. One nutritional supplement with potential therapeutic value is cod liver oil, a dietary supplement that contains vitamin A and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Vitamin A is important for preserving normal vision and it is a well-known antioxidant that prevents the oxidative damage that contributes to the etiology and progression of glaucoma. Vitamin A is also a crucial factor for maintaining the integrity of conjunctival and corneal ocular surfaces, and preventing the impairment of ocular epithelium caused by topical antiglaucomatous drugs. Omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for glaucoma patients as they decrease IOP, increase ocular blood flow, and improve optic neuroprotective function. In this article, we propose that cod liver oil, as a combination of vitamin A and omega-3 fatty acids, should be beneficial for the treatment of glaucoma. However, further studies are needed to explore the relationship between cod liver oil and glaucoma.
    International journal of ophthalmology. 01/2011; 4(6):648-51.

Full-text

View
29 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014