Activation of Pak1/Akt/eNOS signaling following sphingosine-1-phosphate release as part of a mechanism protecting cardiomyocytes against ischemic cell injury.
ABSTRACT We investigated whether plasma long-chain sphingoid base (LCSB) concentrations are altered by transient cardiac ischemia during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in humans and examined the signaling through the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) cascade as a mechanism underlying the S1P cardioprotective effect in cardiac myocytes. Venous samples were collected from either the coronary sinus (n = 7) or femoral vein (n = 24) of 31 patients at 1 and 5 min and 12 h, following induction of transient myocardial ischemia during elective PCI. Coronary sinus levels of LCSB were increased by 1,072% at 1 min and 941% at 5 min (n = 7), while peripheral blood levels of LCSB were increased by 579% at 1 min, 617% at 5 min, and 436% at 12 h (n = 24). In cultured cardiac myocytes, S1P, sphingosine (SPH), and FTY720, a sphingolipid drug candidate, showed protective effects against CoCl induced hypoxia/ischemic cell injury by reducing lactate dehydrogenase activity. Twenty-five nanomolars of FTY720 significantly increased phospho-Pak1 and phospho-Akt levels by 56 and 65.6% in cells treated with this drug for 15 min. Further experiments demonstrated that FTY720 triggered nitric oxide release from cardiac myocytes is through pertussis toxin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling. In ex vivo hearts, ischemic preconditioning was cardioprotective in wild-type control mice (Pak1(f/f)), but this protection appeared to be ineffective in cardiomyocyte-specific Pak1 knockout (Pak1(cko)) hearts. The present study provides the first direct evidence of the behavior of plasma sphingolipids following transient cardiac ischemia with dramatic and early increases in LCSB in humans. We also demonstrated that S1P, SPH, and FTY720 have protective effects against hypoxic/ischemic cell injury, likely a Pak1/Akt1 signaling cascade and nitric oxide release. Further study on a mouse model of cardiac specific deletion of Pak1 demonstrates a crucial role of Pak1 in cardiac protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.
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ABSTRACT: FTY720, sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist, is a potent immunosuppressive agent. Numerous studies have documented a relationship between S1P and cardioprotection. We therefore hypothesized that a S1P analogue FTY720 would attenuate hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induced cadiomyocyte apoptosis. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were employed to establish an in vitro model of H/R. Cells were treated or not with different doses of FTY720. Cell viability was measured by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Western blot was used to analyze downstream signaling pathway. We observed that FTY720 inhibits the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and activates both AKT and ERK1/2 pathways. AKT pathway can be blocked by MEK kinase inhibitor PD98059. ERK1/2 pathway can be blocked by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin. AKT and ERK1/2 activation can also be inhibited by S1P1/3 receptor antagonist VPC23019, Gi antagonist PTX. The protein levels of TNF-α and IL1ß were upregulated during hypoxia/reoxygenation and were attenuated by FTY720. We conclude that FTY720, via its cargo of S1P, can protect cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. This effect is achieved by inhibiting caspase-3 expression, inflammatory cytokine levels and activating AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The prosurvival signal activation is dependent on S1P1, 3 subtype receptors and Gi protein.Experimental and Molecular Pathology 10/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: : FTY720, an analogue of sphingosine-1-phosphate, is cardioprotective during acute injury. Whether long-term FTY720 affords cardioprotection is unknown. Here, we report the effects of oral FTY720 on ischemia/reperfusion injury and in hypomorphic apoE mice deficient in SR-BI receptor expression (ApoeR61/SRB1 mice), a model of diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure. We added FTY720 (0.3 mg·kg·d) to the drinking water of C57BL/6J mice. After ex vivo cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, these mice had significantly improved left ventricular (LV) developed pressure and reduced infarct size compared with controls. Subsequently, ApoeR61/SRB1 mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks were treated or not with oral FTY720 (0.05 mg·kg·d). This sharply reduced mortality (P < 0.02) and resulted in better LV function and less LV remodeling compared with controls without reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Oral FTY720 reduced the number of blood lymphocytes and increased the percentage of CD4Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the circulation, spleen, and lymph nodes. FTY720-treated mice exhibited increased TGF-β and reduced IFN-γ expression in the heart. Also, CD4 expression was increased and strongly correlated with molecules involved in natural Treg activity, such as TGF-β and GITR. Our data suggest that long-term FTY720 treatment enhances LV function and increases longevity in mice with heart failure. These benefits resulted not from atheroprotection but from systemic immunosuppression and a moderate reduction of inflammation in the heart.Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 02/2014; 63(2):132-43. · 2.83 Impact Factor
- Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2014; · 5.15 Impact Factor