Activation of Pak1/Akt/eNOS signaling following sphingosine-1-phosphate release as part of a mechanism protecting cardiomyocytes against ischemic cell injury.
ABSTRACT We investigated whether plasma long-chain sphingoid base (LCSB) concentrations are altered by transient cardiac ischemia during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in humans and examined the signaling through the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) cascade as a mechanism underlying the S1P cardioprotective effect in cardiac myocytes. Venous samples were collected from either the coronary sinus (n = 7) or femoral vein (n = 24) of 31 patients at 1 and 5 min and 12 h, following induction of transient myocardial ischemia during elective PCI. Coronary sinus levels of LCSB were increased by 1,072% at 1 min and 941% at 5 min (n = 7), while peripheral blood levels of LCSB were increased by 579% at 1 min, 617% at 5 min, and 436% at 12 h (n = 24). In cultured cardiac myocytes, S1P, sphingosine (SPH), and FTY720, a sphingolipid drug candidate, showed protective effects against CoCl induced hypoxia/ischemic cell injury by reducing lactate dehydrogenase activity. Twenty-five nanomolars of FTY720 significantly increased phospho-Pak1 and phospho-Akt levels by 56 and 65.6% in cells treated with this drug for 15 min. Further experiments demonstrated that FTY720 triggered nitric oxide release from cardiac myocytes is through pertussis toxin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling. In ex vivo hearts, ischemic preconditioning was cardioprotective in wild-type control mice (Pak1(f/f)), but this protection appeared to be ineffective in cardiomyocyte-specific Pak1 knockout (Pak1(cko)) hearts. The present study provides the first direct evidence of the behavior of plasma sphingolipids following transient cardiac ischemia with dramatic and early increases in LCSB in humans. We also demonstrated that S1P, SPH, and FTY720 have protective effects against hypoxic/ischemic cell injury, likely a Pak1/Akt1 signaling cascade and nitric oxide release. Further study on a mouse model of cardiac specific deletion of Pak1 demonstrates a crucial role of Pak1 in cardiac protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: FTY720 (Fingolimod) is a novel immunomodulator with a mode of action that is completely different from classical immunosuppressants. FTY is a structural and functional analogue of the natural serum lipid, sphingosine, and is the first in a new class of drugs called sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P-R) modulators. This review discusses the recent findings on the mechanism of action, preclinical models and outlines the results of the ongoing clinical development program. FTY is highly effective in prolonging allograft survival in preclinical models of transplantation and in experimental models of autoimmune diseases. In clinical trials, this novel compound was investigated in de novo renal transplantation and in multiple sclerosis. Pharmacokinetics are characterized by a prolonged absorption phase, a large volume of distribution, and a long elimination half-life. FTY induces a rapid and transient decrease in lymphocyte counts, which supports the modulatory effects of the drug on lymphocyte sequestration. The most common adverse event was asymptomatic transient bradycardia, a pharmacodynamic effect modulated by atrial S1 P-R. FTY failed to show an improvement in efficacy for the prevention of renal allograft rejection in two large phase III studies. FTY treatment regimens were associated with impaired renal function and the development of macula edema. Consequently, the further development in renal transplantation was stopped. Because initial clinical studies strongly suggest that FTY is highly effective in multiple sclerosis FTY is now being explored in phase III studies for the treatment of demyelinating diseases, Ongoing studies in multiple sclerosis are eagerly awaited because they may provide novel therapeutic options for patients with autoimmune diseases.Clinical Transplantation 02/2006; 20 Suppl 17:17-24. · 1.63 Impact Factor
- Circulation Research 02/2007; 100(1):7-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests a key role for the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its G-protein-coupled receptors (S1P(1-5)) in the cardiovascular system. Recent advances in sphingolipid research indicates that cardiomyocyte, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function is greatly influenced by the relative expression and activity both of S1P receptors and of the enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. For instance, the discovery and development of S1P receptor agonists such as FTY720 has clearly indicated the involvement of S1P receptors in the regulation of heart rate. In addition, sphingolipid metabolism induced, for example, by tumour necrosis factor-alpha or angiotensin II plays an important role in vessel structure, function and tone.Current Opinion in Pharmacology 05/2007; 7(2):186-92. · 5.44 Impact Factor