Activation of Pak1/Akt/eNOS signaling following sphingosine-1-phosphate release as part of a mechanism protecting cardiomyocytes against ischemic cell injury

Hull and York Medical School, Academic Cardiology, Kingston-upon-Hull, United Kingdom.
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.01). 06/2011; 301(4):H1487-95. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.01003.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated whether plasma long-chain sphingoid base (LCSB) concentrations are altered by transient cardiac ischemia during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in humans and examined the signaling through the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) cascade as a mechanism underlying the S1P cardioprotective effect in cardiac myocytes. Venous samples were collected from either the coronary sinus (n = 7) or femoral vein (n = 24) of 31 patients at 1 and 5 min and 12 h, following induction of transient myocardial ischemia during elective PCI. Coronary sinus levels of LCSB were increased by 1,072% at 1 min and 941% at 5 min (n = 7), while peripheral blood levels of LCSB were increased by 579% at 1 min, 617% at 5 min, and 436% at 12 h (n = 24). In cultured cardiac myocytes, S1P, sphingosine (SPH), and FTY720, a sphingolipid drug candidate, showed protective effects against CoCl induced hypoxia/ischemic cell injury by reducing lactate dehydrogenase activity. Twenty-five nanomolars of FTY720 significantly increased phospho-Pak1 and phospho-Akt levels by 56 and 65.6% in cells treated with this drug for 15 min. Further experiments demonstrated that FTY720 triggered nitric oxide release from cardiac myocytes is through pertussis toxin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling. In ex vivo hearts, ischemic preconditioning was cardioprotective in wild-type control mice (Pak1(f/f)), but this protection appeared to be ineffective in cardiomyocyte-specific Pak1 knockout (Pak1(cko)) hearts. The present study provides the first direct evidence of the behavior of plasma sphingolipids following transient cardiac ischemia with dramatic and early increases in LCSB in humans. We also demonstrated that S1P, SPH, and FTY720 have protective effects against hypoxic/ischemic cell injury, likely a Pak1/Akt1 signaling cascade and nitric oxide release. Further study on a mouse model of cardiac specific deletion of Pak1 demonstrates a crucial role of Pak1 in cardiac protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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Available from: Emmanuel E. Egom, Jul 12, 2015
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    • "Ischemia/reperfusion was previously found to markedly affect sphingolipid metabolism in the rodent myocardium [6]. In addition, it was recently reported that temporary coronary artery occlusion during elective percutaneous coronary intervention resulted in acute increase in total plasma long-chain sphingoid bases concentration [32]. This could explain our finding of sphingosine and sphinganine accumulation in erythrocytes isolated from the STEMI patients. "
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    • "development and is essential for branching of the ureteric bud (Kirby et al. 2009). As shown in Figure 2, the downstream targets of S1P signalling include adenylate cyclase, Ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C, c-Src tyrosine kinase, hypoxia-inducible factor 1, the small GTPases Rac and Rho, phospholipase D, p125FAK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT, calcium, cAMP, eNOS and NF-jB signalling (Ishii et al. 2004, Hemmings 2006, Egom et al. 2011, Takuwa et al. 2012). "
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