Structural stability and heme binding potential of the truncated human dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) peroxidase domain.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, United States.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Impact Factor: 3.04). 06/2011; 512(2):197-203. DOI: 10.1016/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The essential role of human dual oxidase 2 (hDUOX2) in thyroid hormone biosynthesis defines this member of the NOX/DUOX family, whose absence due to mutation has been directly related to disease, specifically hypothyroidism. Both human DUOX isoforms, hDUOX1 and hDUOX2, are expressed in thyroid tissue; however, hDUOX1 cannot compensate for inactivation of hDUOX2, suggesting that each enzyme is differentially regulated and/or functions in a unique manner. In efforts to uncover relevant structural and functional differences we have expressed and purified the peroxidase domain of hDUOX2(1-599) for direct comparison with the previously studied hDUOX1(1-593). As was shown for hDUOX1, the truncated hDUOX2 domain purifies without a bound heme co-factor and displays no peroxidase activity. However, hDUOX2(1-599) displays greater stability than hDUOX1(1-593). Surprisingly, upon titration with heme, both isoforms bind heme with a low micromolar affinity, demonstrating that they retain a heme binding site. A conformational difference in the full-length protein and/or a protein-protein interaction may be required to increase the heme binding affinity.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Significance: Among the NADPH oxidases, the dual oxidases, DUOX1 and DUOX2, constitute a distinct subfamily initially called thyroid oxidases, based on their high level of expression in thyroid tissue. Genetic alterations causing inherited hypothyroidism clearly demonstrate their physiological implication in thyroid hormonogenesis. However, a growing list of biological functions triggered by DUOX-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) in highly differentiated mucosae have recently emerged. Recent Advances: A role of DUOX enzymes as ROS providers for lactoperoxidase-mediated killing of invading pathogens has been well established and a role in bacteria chemorepulsion has been proposed. Control of DUOX expression and activity by inflammatory molecules and immune receptor activation consolidates their contributions to innate immune defense of mucosal surfaces. Recent studies conducted in ancestral organisms have identified effectors of DUOX redox signaling involved in wound healing including epithelium regeneration and leukocyte recruitment. Moreover, local generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by DUOX has also been suggested to constitute a positive feedback loop to promote receptor signaling activation. Critical Issues: A correct balance between H2O2 generation and detoxification mechanisms must be properly maintained to avoid oxidative damages. Overexpression of DUOX genes has been associated with an increasing number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, H2O2-mediated DNA damage supports a mutagenic function promoting tumor development. Future Directions: Despite the high sequence similarity shared between DUOX1 and DUOX2, the two isoforms present distinct regulations, tissue expression and catalytic functions. The phenotypic characterization of novel DUOX/DUOXA invalidated animal models will be very useful for defining their medical importance in pathological conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 10/2013; DOI:10.1089/ars.2013.5602 · 8.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the synergistic relationship between NADPH Oxidases (NOX)/Dual Oxidases (DUOX) enzymes and peroxidases has received increased attention. Peroxidases utilize NOX/DUOX-generated H2O2 for a myriad of functions including, but not limited to thyroid hormone biosynthesis, cross-linking extracellular matrices (ECM) and immune defense. We postulated that one or more peroxidases produced by Caenorhabditis elegans would act in host defense, possibly in conjunction with BLI-3, the only NOX/DUOX enzyme encoded by the genome that is expressed. Animals exposed to RNAi of the putative peroxidase genes were screened for susceptibility to the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. One of three genes identified, skpo-1 (ShkT-containing peroxidase), was studied in-depth. Animals mutant for this gene were significantly more susceptible to E. faecalis, but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A slight decrease in longevity was also observed. The skpo-1 mutant animals had a dumpy phenotype of incomplete penetrance; half the animals displayed a dumpy phenotype ranging from slight to severe, and half were morphologically wild type. The SKPO-1 protein contains the critical catalytic residues necessary for peroxidase activity, and in a whole animal assay more H2O2 was detected from the mutant compared to the wild type, consistent with the loss of an H2O2 sink. By using tissue-specific skpo-1 RNAi and immunohistochemical localization with an anti-SKPO-1 antibody, it was determined that the peroxidase is functionally and physically present in the hypodermis. In conclusion, these results characterize a peroxidase that functions protectively in the hypodermis during exposure to E. faecalis.
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    ABSTRACT: Significance: Oxidative stress, an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production versus consumption, may be involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. The only known enzymes solely dedicated to ROS generation are NADPH oxidases with their catalytic subunits (NOX). After the clinical failure of most antioxidant trials, NOX inhibitors are the most promising therapeutic option for diseases associated with oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Historical NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenylene iodonium, are un-specific and not isoform selective. Novel NOX inhibitors stemming from rational drug discovery approaches, e.g. GKT137831, ML171 and VAS2870, show improved specificity for NADPH oxidases and moderate NOX isoform selectivity. Together with NOX2ds-tat, a peptide-based inhibitor, the use of these novel small molecules in animal models has provided preliminary in vivo evidence for a pathophysiological role of specific NOX isoforms. Critical issues: We here discuss whether novel NOX inhibitors allow reliable validation of NOX isoforms' pathological roles and whether this knowledge supports translation into pharmacological applications. Modern NOX inhibitors have increased the evidence for pathophysiological roles of NADPH oxidases. However, in comparison to knockout mouse models, NOX inhibitors have limited isoform selectivity. Thus, their use does not allow clear statements on the involvement of individual NOX isoforms in a given disease. Future Directions: The development of isoform-selective NOX inhibitors and biologicals will enable reliable validation of specific NOX isoforms in disease models other than mouse. Finally, GKT137831, the first NOX inhibitor in clinical development, is poised to provide proof of principle for the clinical potential of NOX inhibition.
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