Metabolic Tumor Volume is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients Treated Definitively for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, CA, USA.
Clinical Lung Cancer (Impact Factor: 3.1). 06/2011; 13(1):52-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cllc.2011.05.001
Source: PubMed


Fluorine-18 flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has rapidly become the standard of care for staging patients with lung cancer. We evaluated the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV), a measure of tumor burden on FDG-PET imaging, in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated definitively.
A retrospective review identified 61 patients with NSCLC who underwent FDG-PET imaging for pretreatment staging. Metabolically active tumor regions were segmented on the PET scans semiautomatically to calculate the total body MTV. We determined the relationship of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with MTV in the entire cohort, and in the subgroup treated definitively.
The estimated median PFS and OS for the entire cohort were 11.1 months and 18.9 months. Higher MTV was significantly associated with worse OS (P = 0.00075) and PFS (P = 0.00077). For definitively treated patients, when MTV was analyzed as a binary value above or below the median value, 2-year PFS was 60% versus 39.7% (median PFS 34.9 vs. 11.9 months) and 2-year OS was 79.7% versus 33.3% (median OS 41.9 vs. 18.9 months), respectively (log-rank P = 0.12 for PFS and P = 0.066 for OS). When MTV was analyzed as a continuous variable, multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated a trend to worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31; P = 0.12) and significantly worse OS (HR = 1.53; P = 0.018) with increasing MTV after controlling for known prognostic variables.
Tumor burden as assessed by MTV yields prognostic information on survival beyond that of established prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC treated definitively.

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    • "MTV or the volume of tumor tissue demonstrating increased FDG uptake on PET, including primary tumor as well as metastases, is another independent adverse prognostic factor. Lee et al. (2012) evaluated 61 primary NSCLC patients (39 treated with curative intent while 22 treated with palliative intent) with F18 FDG PET/CT before and after therapy. MTV was found to be an independent prognostic factor after accounting for all traditional prognostic variables (stage, performance status, weight loss, etc.). "
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory-gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT-based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.
    Frontiers in Oncology 07/2012; 2:71. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00071
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    • "Post-treatment 18F-FDG-PET and CT have been compared in a prospective manner in patients treated with definitive radiation or chemoradiation, and 18F-FDG-PET response was found to be more significantly correlated with survival than response as assessed by CT (Mac Manus et al., 2003). Other studies have confirmed a poorer prognosis in patients with a higher volume of residual metabolically active tumor after definitive treatment (Lee et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The role PET in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. Evidence is emerging for the role of PET in response assessment to neoadjuvant therapy, combined-modality therapy, and early detection of recurrence. Here, we review the current literature on these aspects of PET in the management of NSCLC. FDG-PET, particularly integrated 18F-FDG-PET/CT, scans have become a standard test in the staging of local tumor extent, mediastinal lymph node involvement, and distant metastatic disease in NSCLC. FDG-PET sensitivity is generally superior to computed tomography (CT) scans alone. Local tumor extent and T stage can be more accurately determined with FDG-PET in certain cases. FDG-PET sensitivity is decreased in tumors <1 cm, at least in part due to respiratory motion. False-negative results can occur in areas of low tumor burden. FDG-PET-CT nodal staging is more accurate than CT alone. FDG-PET scans have widely replaced bone scintography for assessing distant metastases, except for the brain, which still warrants dedicated brain imaging. FDG uptake has also been shown to vary between histologies, with adenocarcinomas generally being less FDG avid than squamous cell carcinomas. FDG-PET scans are useful to detect recurrences, but are currently not recommended for routine follow-up. Typically, patients are followed with chest CT scans every 3-6 months, using FDG-PET to evaluate equivocal CT findings. As high FDG uptake can occur in infectious, inflammatory, and other non-neoplastic conditions, PET-positive findings require pathological confirmation. There is increased interest in the prognostic and predictive role of FDG-PET scans. Studies show that absence of metabolic response to neoadjuvant therapy correlates with poor pathologic response, and a favorable FDG-PET response appears to be associated with improved survival. Further work is underway to identify subsets of patients that might benefit individualized management based on FDG-PET.
    Frontiers in Oncology 01/2012; 2:208. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00208
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study aimed to further stratify prognostic factors in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by measuring their metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Materials and Methods The subjects of this retrospective study were 57 patients with stage IV NSCLC. MTV, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were measured on F-18 FDG PET/CT in both the primary lung lesion as well as metastatic lesions in torso. Optimal cutoff values of PET parameters were measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for evaluation of progression-free survival (PFS). The univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to select the significant prognostic factors. Results Univariate analysis showed that both MTV and TLG of primary lung lesion (MTV-lung and TLG-lung) were significant factors for prediction of PFS (P < 0.001, P = 0.038, respectively). Patients showing lower values of MTV-lung and TLG-lung than the cutoff values had significantly longer mean PFS than those with higher values. Hazard ratios (95 % confidence interval) of MTV-lung and TLG-lung measured by univariate analysis were 6.4 (2.5–16.3) and 2.4 (1.0–5.5), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that MTV-lung was the only significant factor for prediction of prognosis. Hazard ratio was 13.5 (1.6–111.1, P = 0.016). Conclusion Patients with stage IV NSCLC could be further stratified into subgroups of significantly better and worse prognosis by MTV of primary lung lesion.
    12/2012; 46(4). DOI:10.1007/s13139-012-0165-5
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