Disrupted functional connectivity for controlled visual processing as a basis for impaired spatial working memory in schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Although regional brain abnormalities underlying spatial working memory (SWM) deficits in schizophrenia have been identified, little is known about which brain circuits are functionally disrupted in the SWM network in schizophrenia. We investigated SWM-related interregional functional connectivity in schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected during a memory task that required analysis of spatial information in object structure. Twelve schizophrenia patients and 11 normal control subjects participated. Patients had SWM performance deficits and deficient neural activation in various brain areas, especially in the high SWM load condition. Examination of the covariation of regional brain activations elicited by the SWM task revealed evidence of functional disconnection between prefrontal and posterior visual association areas in schizophrenia. Under low SMW load, we found reduced functional associations between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and inferior temporal cortex (ITC) in the right hemisphere in patients. Under high SWM load, we found evidence for further functional disconnection in patients, including additional reduced functional associations between left DLPFC and right visual areas, including the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), fusiform gyrus, and V1, as well as between right inferior frontal cortex and right PPC. Greater prefrontal-posterior cortical functional connectivity was associated with better SWM performance in controls, but not in patients. These results suggest that prefrontal-posterior functional connectivity associated with the maintenance and control of visual information is central to SWM, and that disruption of this functional network underlies SWM deficits in schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves cognitive control: the ability to coordinate thoughts or actions in relation with internal goals. Its functional architecture, however, remains poorly understood. Using brain imaging in humans, we showed that the lateral PFC is organized as a cascade of executive processes from premotor to anterior PFC regions that control behavior according to stimuli, the present perceptual context, and the temporal episode in which stimuli occur, respectively. The results support an unified modular model of cognitive control that describes the overall functional organization of the human lateral PFC and has basic methodological and theoretical implications.Science 12/2003; 302(5648):1181-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
Confinia neurologica 02/1967; 29(1):1-16.
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ABSTRACT: Control regions in the brain are thought to provide signals that configure the brain's moment-to-moment information processing. Previously, we identified regions that carried signals related to task-control initiation, maintenance, and adjustment. Here we characterize the interactions of these regions by applying graph theory to resting state functional connectivity MRI data. In contrast to previous, more unitary models of control, this approach suggests the presence of two distinct task-control networks. A frontoparietal network included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus. This network emphasized start-cue and error-related activity and may initiate and adapt control on a trial-by-trial basis. The second network included dorsal anterior cingulate/medial superior frontal cortex, anterior insula/frontal operculum, and anterior prefrontal cortex. Among other signals, these regions showed activity sustained across the entire task epoch, suggesting that this network may control goal-directed behavior through the stable maintenance of task sets. These two independent networks appear to operate on different time scales and affect downstream processing via dissociable mechanisms.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2007; 104(26):11073-8. · 9.68 Impact Factor