Minimal effects of acute liver injury/acute liver failure on hemostasis as assessed by thromboelastography.
ABSTRACT Patients with acute liver injury/failure (ALI/ALF) are assumed to have a bleeding diathesis on the basis of elevated INR; however, clinically significant bleeding is rare. We hypothesized that patients with ALI/ALF have normal hemostasis despite elevated INR.
Fifty-one patients with ALI/ALF were studied prospectively using thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the dynamics and physical properties of clot formation in whole blood. ALI was defined as an INR ≥1.5 in a patient with no previous liver disease, and ALF as ALI with hepatic encephalopathy.
Thirty-seven of 51 patients (73%) had ALF and 22 patients (43%) underwent liver transplantation or died. Despite a mean INR of 3.4±1.7 (range 1.5-9.6), mean TEG parameters were normal, and 5 individual TEG parameters were normal in 32 (63%). Low maximum amplitude, the measure of ultimate clot strength, was confined to patients with platelet counts <126×10(9)/L. Maximum amplitude was higher in patients with ALF than ALI and correlated directly with venous ammonia concentrations and with increasing severity of liver injury assessed by elements of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. All patients had markedly decreased procoagulant factor V and VII levels, which were proportional to decreases in anticoagulant proteins and inversely proportional to elevated factor VIII levels.
Despite elevated INR, most patients with ALI/ALF maintain normal hemostasis by TEG, the mechanisms of which include an increase in clot strength with increasing severity of liver injury, increased factor VIII levels, and a commensurate decline in pro- and anticoagulant proteins.
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ABSTRACT: Kupffer cells reside within the liver sinusoid and serve as gatekeepers. They produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and other biologically important molecules upon the engagement of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors. Kupffer cell-ablated mice established by in vivo treatment with clodronate liposomes have revealed many important features of Kupffer cells. In this paper, we review the importance of Kupffer cells in murine acute liver injuries and focus on the following two models: lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury, which is induced by priming with Propionibacterium acnes and subsequent challenge with LPS, and hypercoagulability-mediated acute liver failure such as that in concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis. Kupffer cells are required for LPS sensitization induced by P. acnes and are a major cellular source of interleukin-18, which induces acute liver injury following LPS challenge. Kupffer cells contribute to Con A-induced acute liver failure by initiating pathogenic, intrasinusoidal thrombosis in collaboration with sinusoidal endothelial cells. The mechanisms underlying these models may shed light on human liver injuries induced by various etiologies such as viral infection and/or abnormal metabolism.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 05/2014; 15(5):7711-30. DOI:10.3390/ijms15057711 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complex nature of haemostasis in patients with liver disease can result in bleeding and/or thrombosis. These opposing outcomes, which have multiple contributing factors, can pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas for physicians. With the high rate of haemorrhagic complications in patients with cirrhosis, we examine the various procoagulants available for use in this population. In this Review, we describe the clinical and current rationale for using each of the currently available procoagulants-vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitate, platelets, recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), antifibrinolytics, prothrombin concentrate complexes (PCC), desmopressin and red blood cells. By examining the evidence and use of these agents in liver disease, we provide a framework for targeted, goal-directed therapy with procoagulants.Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 07/2014; DOI:10.1038/nrgastro.2014.121 · 10.43 Impact Factor