Bimanual Training and Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Trial

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.
Neurorehabilitation and neural repair (Impact Factor: 4.62). 06/2011; 25(8):692-702. DOI: 10.1177/1545968311402508
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes hand function using intensive unimanual practice along with restraint of the less-affected hand. CIMT has not been compared with a treatment with equivalent dosing frequency and intensity in children with cerebral palsy (CP).
The authors report a randomized trial comparing CIMT and a bimanual intervention (hand-arm intensive bimanual therapy; HABIT) that maintains the intensity of practice associated with CIMT but where children are engaged in functional bimanual tasks.
A total of 42 participants with hemiplegic CP between the ages of 3.5 and 10 years (matched for age and hand function) were randomized to receive 90 hours of CIMT or an equivalent dosage of functional bimanual training (HABIT) conducted in day-camp environments. A physical therapist blinded to treatment allocation tested hand function before and after treatment. The primary outcomes were changes in Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF) and Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) scores. Secondary measures included the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS).
Both the CIMT and HABIT groups demonstrated comparable improvement from the pretest to immediate posttest in the JTTHF and AHA (P < .0001), which were maintained at 6 months. GAS, however, revealed greater progress toward goals for the HABIT group (P < .0001), with continued improvement across test sessions for both groups (P < .0001).
Both CIMT and bimanual training lead to similar improvements in hand function. A potential benefit of bimanual training is that participants may improve more on self-determined goals.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Young children with cerebral palsy (CP) receive a variety of interventions to prevent and/or reduce activity limitations and participation restrictions. Some of these interventions are intensive, and it is a challenge to identify the optimal intensity. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to describe and categorise intensive motor function and functional skills training among young children with CP, to summarise the effects of these interventions, and to examine characteristics that may contribute to explain the variations in these effects.Methods Ten databases were searched for controlled studies that included young children (mean age less than seven years old) with CP and assessments of the effects of intensive motor function and functional skills training. The studies were critically assessed by the Risk of bias tool (RoB) and categorised for intensity and contexts of interventions. Standardised mean difference were computed for outcomes, and summarised descriptively or in meta-analyses.ResultsThirty-eight studies were included. Studies that targeted gross motor function were fewer, older and with lower frequency of training sessions over longer training periods than studies that targeted hand function. Home training was most common in studies on hand function and functional skills, and often increased the amount of training. The effects of constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) on hand function and functional skills were summarised in six meta-analyses, which supported the existing evidence of CIMT. In a majority of the included studies, equal improvements were identified between intensive intervention and conventional therapy or between two different intensive interventions.Conclusions Different types of training, different intensities and different contexts between studies that targeted gross and fine motor function might explain some of the observed effect variations. Home training may increase the amount of training, but are less controllable. These factors may have contributed to the observed variations in the effectiveness of CIMT. Rigorous research on intensive gross motor training is needed.Systematic review registration numberCRD42013004023.
    BMC Pediatrics 12/2014; 14(1):292. DOI:10.1186/s12887-014-0292-5 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures, which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle, however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified CIMT and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention.
    Frontiers in Neurology 12/2014; 5(281):doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00281. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2014.00281
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of 'remind to move' treatment on hemiplegic arm function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Methodology: Twelve students with unilateral CP aged 6-18 were recruited from a special school and randomly assigned into two groups. Participants in the experimental group underwent a 3-week sensory cueing treatment followed by a 3-week sham treatment. Participants in the waitlist group completed the sham treatment first followed by the sensory-cueing treatment. There was a 4-week washout period between treatments. Results: Both functional hand use and arm impairment level significantxly improved after the 3-week sensory cueing treatment for the combined sample between groups. However, no significant carryover effects were found for either treatment. Conclusion: Three weeks of 'remind to move' treatment is useful in improving hemiplegic arm function and quantity of hand use in children with unilateral CP but the long-term carryover effect requires further investigation.
    Developmental Neurorehabilitation 12/2014; DOI:10.3109/17518423.2014.988304 · 1.48 Impact Factor