Article

Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 Accelerates Tumor Growth by Arginine Methylation of the Tumor Suppressor Programmed Cell Death 4

Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 06/2011; 71(16):5579-87. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0458
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) has been described as a tumor suppressor, with high expression correlating with better outcomes in a number of cancer types. Yet a substantial number of cancer patients with high PDCD4 in tumors have poor survival, suggesting that oncogenic pathways may inhibit or change PDCD4 function. Here, we explore the significance of PDCD4 in breast cancer and identify protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as a cofactor that radically alters PDCD4 function. Specifically, we find that coexpression of PDCD4 and PRMT5 in an orthotopic model of breast cancer causes accelerated tumor growth and that this growth phenotype is dependent on both the catalytic activity of PRMT5 and a site of methylation within the N-terminal region of PDCD4. In agreement with the xenograft model, elevated PDCD4 expression was found to correlate with worse outcome within the cohort of breast cancer patients whose tumors contain higher levels of PRMT5. These results reveal a new cofactor for PDCD4 that alters its tumor suppressor functions and point to the utility of PDCD4/PRMT5 status as both a prognostic biomarker and a potential target for chemotherapy.

1 Follower
 · 
95 Views
  • Source
    • "PRMT5 is one of the most well-characterized family members with SDMA activity and catalyzes formation of SDMA in proteins with a glycine and arginine-rich motif [15]. PRMT5 was reported to regulate various cellular functions including apoptosis, Golgi structure, pluripotency, cell growth, and snRNP biosynthesis [16] [17] [18]. One important key marker of the PRMT5 activity is the symmetrical dimethylation of histone 3 arginine 8 (H3R8me2s) level. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: p53 is one of the most important tumor suppressor genes involved in human carcinogenesis. Although downstream targets of p53 and their biologic functions in cancer cells have been extensively investigated, it is still far from the full understanding. Here, we demonstrate that Late Cornified Envelope Group I (LCE1) genes, which are located in the LCE gene clusters encoding multiple well-conserved stratum-corneum proteins, are novel downstream targets of p53. Exogenous p53 overexpression using an adenoviral vector system significantly enhanced the expression of LCE1 cluster genes. We also observed induction of LCE1 expressions by DNA damage, which was caused by treatment with adriamycin or UV irradiation in a wild-type p53-dependent manner. Concordantly, the induction of LCE1 by DNA damage was significantly attenuated by the knockdown of p53. Among predicted p53-binding sites within the LCE1 gene cluster, we confirmed one site to be a p53-enhancer sequence by reporter assays. Furthermore, we identified LCE1 to interact with protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). Knockdown of LCE1 by specific small interfering RNAs significantly increased the symmetric dimethylation of histone H3 arginine 8, a substrate of PRMT5, and overexpression of LCE1F remarkably decreased its methylation level. Our data suggest that LCE1 is a novel p53 downstream target that can be directly transactivated by p53 and is likely to have tumor suppressor functions through modulation of the PRMT5 activity.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 08/2014; 16(8). DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2014.07.008 · 5.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arginine methylation governs important cellular processes that impact growth and proliferation, as well as differentiation and development. Through their ability to catalyze symmetric or asymmetric methylation of histone and non-histone proteins, members of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family regulate chromatin structure and expression of a wide spectrum of target genes. Unlike other PRMTs, PRMT5 works in concert with a variety of cellular proteins including ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers and co-repressors to induce epigenetic silencing. Recent work also implicates PRMT5 in the control of growth-promoting and pro-survival pathways, which demonstrates its versatility as an enzyme involved in both epigenetic regulation of anti-cancer target genes and organelle biogenesis. These studies not only provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which PRMT5 contributes to growth control, but also justify therapeutic targeting of PRMT5.
    Trends in Biochemical Sciences 12/2011; 36(12):633-41. DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2011.09.001 · 13.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The precise mechanisms by which the activation of interferon (IFN) receptors (IFNRs) ultimately controls mRNA translation of specific target genes to induce IFN-dependent biological responses remain ill defined. We provide evidence that IFN-α induces phosphorylation of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) protein on Ser67. This IFN-α-dependent phosphorylation is mediated by either the p70 S6 kinase (S6K) or the p90 ribosomal protein S6K (RSK) in a cell-type-specific manner. IFN-dependent phosphorylation of PDCD4 results in downregulation of PDCD4 protein levels as the phosphorylated form of PDCD4 interacts with the ubiquitin ligase β-TRCP (β-transducin repeat-containing protein) and undergoes degradation. This process facilitates IFN-induced eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) activity and binding to translation initiation factor eIF4G to promote mRNA translation. Our data establish that PDCD4 degradation ultimately facilitates expression of several ISG protein products that play important roles in the generation of IFN responses, including IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), p21(WAF1/CIP1), and Schlafen 5 (SLFN5). Moreover, engagement of the RSK/PDCD4 pathway by the type I IFNR is required for the suppressive effects of IFN-α on normal CD34(+) hematopoietic precursors and for antileukemic effects in vitro. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for a unique function of PDCD4 in the type I IFN system and indicate a key regulatory role for this protein in mRNA translation of ISGs and control of IFN responses.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/2012; 32(14):2809-22. DOI:10.1128/MCB.00310-12 · 5.04 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from