Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: a proposal for DSM-V.
ABSTRACT The personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is currently being developed. The purpose of the current paper is to encourage the authors of DSM-V to integrate normal and abnormal personality structure within a common, integrative model, and to suggest that the optimal choice for such an integration would be the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. A proposal for the classification of personality disorder from the perspective of the FFM is provided. Discussed as well are implications and issues associated with an FFM of personality disorder, including validity, coverage, feasibility, clinical utility, and treatment implications.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5 years), mothers and fathers reported the Big Five personality dimensions 4 times across 8 years. Children's vector length in a 5-dimensional configuration of the Big Five dimensions represented personality extremity. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported children's internalizing and externalizing problems at the 1st and final measurement. In a cohort-sequential design, we modeled personality extremity in children and adolescents from ages 6 to 17 years. Growth mixture modeling revealed a similar solution for both mother and father reports: a large group with relatively short vectors that were stable over time (mother reports: 80.3%; father reports: 84.7%) and 2 smaller groups with relatively long vectors (i.e., extreme personality configuration). One group started out relatively extreme and decreased over time (mother reports: 13.2%; father reports: 10.4%), whereas the other group started out only slightly higher than the short vector group but increased across time (mother reports: 6.5%; father reports: 4.9%). Children who belonged to the increasingly extreme class experienced more internalizing and externalizing problems in late adolescence, controlling for previous levels of adjustment problems and the Big Five personality dimensions. Personality extremity may be important to consider when identifying children at risk for adjustment problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 12/2013; 105(6):1038-48. DOI:10.1037/a0034441 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group have proposed diagnosing personality disorder based in part on 25 pathological traits. Initial research suggests that five factors explain the covariance among these traits and that these factors reflect the domains of the well-validated Five-Factor Model (FFM) of normative personality. This finding is important because it signifies the potential to apply normative trait research to personality disorder classification in the DSM-5. In this study, trait scale scores on the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and domain scores from the FFM Rating Form (FFMRF) were subjected to a conjoint exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to test the higher-order convergence of the DSM-5 pathological trait model and the FFM in a nonclinical sample (N = 808). Results indicate that the five higher-order factors of the conjoint EFA reflect the domains of the FFM. The authors briefly discuss implications of this correspondence between the normative FFM and the pathological PID-5.Assessment 09/2012; 20(3). DOI:10.1177/1073191112457589 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen's (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument.Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 11/2011; 3(2):107-26. DOI:10.1037/a0025905 · 3.54 Impact Factor