Muscle-type 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and aldolase associate conferring catalytic advantages for both enzymes.
ABSTRACT 6-Phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK) and aldolase are two sequential glycolytic enzymes that associate forming heterotetramers containing a dimer of each enzyme. Although free PFK dimers present a negligible activity, once associated to aldolase these dimers are as active as the fully active tetrameric conformation of the enzyme. Here we show that aldolase-associated PFK dimers are not inhibited by clotrimazole, an antifungal azole derivative proposed as an antineoplastic drug due to its inhibitory effects on PFK. In the presence of aldolase, PFK is not modulated by its allosteric activators, ADP and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, but is still inhibited by citrate and lactate. The association between the two enzymes also results on the twofold stimulation of aldolase maximal velocity and affinity for its substrate. These results suggest that the association between PFK and aldolase confers catalytic advantage for both enzymes and may contribute to the channeling of the glycolytic metabolism.
- SourceAvailable from: Wagner Coelho[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present work describes the effects of metformin on hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) activities and localization in different tissues from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic mice present lower HK and PFK activities (50%) in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue, as compared with control (P<0.05). Treatment with 250 mg/kg metformin reverses this pattern of enzyme inhibition with concomitant reversal of hyperglycemia and hypolactacidemia. Furthermore, the treatment increases the cytoskeleton-associated PFK activity in skeletal muscle; this activity has been described as an important mechanism for the enzyme activation. This effect might be due to the increased phosphorylation of serine residues in the enzyme, a modification which has been described to increase the interaction of PFK with f-actin. The current work supports the hypothesis that metformin hypoglycemic effects involve the activation of glycolysis through its regulatory enzymes, which may be potential targets for the development of new hypoglycemic drugs.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/2010; 496(1):53-60. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and its associated complications, including cardiomyopathy. Metformin, in addition to lowering blood glucose levels, provides cardioprotection for diabetic subjects. Glycolysis is essential to cardiac metabolism and its reduction may contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK), rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, are downregulated in cardiac muscle from diabetic subjects, playing a central role on the decreased glucose utilization in the heart of diabetic subjects. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether metformin modulates heart HK and PFK from diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection on male Swiss mice, which were treated for three consecutive days with 250 mg/kg metformin before evaluating HK and PFK activity, expression, and intracellular distribution on the heart of these subjects. We show that metformin abrogates the downregulation of HK and PFK in the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. This effect is not correlated to alteration on the enzymes' transcription and expression. However, the intracellular distribution of both enzymes is altered in diabetic hearts that show increased activity of the soluble fraction when compared to the particulate fraction. Moreover, this pattern is reversed upon the treatment with metformin, which is correlated with the effects of the drug on the enzymes activity. Altogether, our results support evidences that metformin alter the intracellular localization of HK and PFK augmenting glucose utilization by diabetic hearts and, thus, conferring cardiac protection to diabetic subjects.International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 06/2012; 64(9):766-74. · 2.79 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-HT) is a hormone that has been implicated in the regulation of many physiological and pathological events. One of the most intriguing properties of this hormone is its ability to up-regulate mitosis. Moreover, 5-HT stimulates glucose uptake and up-regulates PFK activity through the 5-HT(2A) receptor, resulting in the phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue of PFK and the intracellular redistribution of PFK within skeletal muscle. The present study investigated some of the signaling intermediates involved in the effects of 5-HT on 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK) regulation from skeletal muscle using kinetic assessments, immunoprecipitation, and western blotting assays. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT stimulates PFK from skeletal muscle via phospholipase C (PLC). The activation of PLC in skeletal muscle leads to the recruitment of protein kinase C (PKC) and calmodulin and the stimulation of calmodulin kinase II, which associates with PFK upon 5-HT action. Alternatively, 5-HT loses its ability to up-regulate PFK activity when Janus kinase is inhibited, suggesting that 5-HT is able to control glycolytic flux in the skeletal muscle of mice by recruiting different pathways and controlling PFK activity.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 09/2012; · 2.33 Impact Factor