Direct inhibition of tombusvirus plus-strand RNA synthesis by a dominant negative mutant of a host metabolic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, in yeast and plants.
ABSTRACT The replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on many cellular factors. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an abundant metabolic enzyme that is recruited to the replicase complex of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and affects asymmetric viral RNA synthesis. To further our understanding on the role of GAPDH in TBSV replication, we used an in vitro TBSV replication assay based on recombinant p33 and p92(pol) viral replication proteins and cell-free yeast extract. We found that the addition of purified recombinant GAPDH to the cell extract prepared from GAPDH-depleted yeast results in increased plus-strand RNA synthesis and asymmetric production of viral RNAs. Our data also demonstrate that GAPDH interacts with p92(pol) viral replication protein, which may facilitate the recruitment of GAPDH into the viral replicase complex in the yeast model host. In addition, we have identified a dominant negative mutant of GAPDH, which inhibits RNA synthesis and RNA recruitment in vitro. Moreover, this mutant also exhibits strong suppression of tombusvirus accumulation in yeast and in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana. Overall, the obtained data support the model that the co-opted GAPDH plays a direct role in TBSV replication by stimulating plus-strand synthesis by the viral replicase.
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ABSTRACT: Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. In this paper, we show that an essential translation factor, Ded1p DEAD-box RNA helicase of yeast, directly affects replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). To separate the role of Ded1p in viral protein translation from its putative replication function, we utilized a cell-free TBSV replication assay and recombinant Ded1p. The in vitro data show that Ded1p plays a role in enhancing plus-strand synthesis by the viral replicase. We also find that Ded1p is a component of the tombusvirus replicase complex and Ded1p binds to the 3'-end of the viral minus-stranded RNA. The data obtained with wt and ATPase deficient Ded1p mutants support the model that Ded1p unwinds local structures at the 3'-end of the TBSV (-)RNA, rendering the RNA compatible for initiation of (+)-strand synthesis. Interestingly, we find that Ded1p and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which is another host factor for TBSV, play non-overlapping functions to enhance (+)-strand synthesis. Altogether, the two host factors enhance TBSV replication synergistically by interacting with the viral (-)RNA and the replication proteins. In addition, we have developed an in vitro assay for Flock house virus (FHV), a small RNA virus of insects, that also demonstrated positive effect on FHV replicase activity by the added Ded1p helicase. Thus, two small RNA viruses, which do not code for their own helicases, seems to recruit a host RNA helicase to aid their replication in infected cells.PLoS Pathogens 02/2012; 8(2):e1002537. · 9.13 Impact Factor